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Diseases and diagnostic tests

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Pick any two diseases that require diagnostic tests to identify them from the body system. For each of the diseases, explain the following:

Why is a particular test recommended?
How does the test work?
What information is obtained from the diagnostic test regarding the disease?
Does the diagnosis need confirmation with another diagnostic test?

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I have chosen the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) as diagnostic tests. Thanks for using BrainMass.

Prostate Cancer and PSA

PSA or prostate specific antigen measures a protein in the blood produced by the prostate gland in response to a pathphysiological process (mostly cancer). This test was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA to evaluate prostate cancer after treatment, or monitor those who had been diagnosed of prostate cancer. In patients diagnosed of prostate cancer, the repeated values of the PSA are used to follow the disease's behavior. Constant high values, or increased values would indicate no response to treatment or progression of the disease.

Until recently, it was recommended as a routine test to diagnose prostate cancer. However, recent outcomes of large clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian [PLCO] Cancer Screening Trial in the USA and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC]) have questioned its use as a screening test for prostate cancer, and have brought lack of consensus among organizations. The American Urology Association continues to recommend its use as a screening test; U.S. Preventive Services Task ...

Solution Summary

The solution involves choosing two diseases and related diagnostic tests, discussion on why and how the test is used, and present recommendations including additional tests if needed for diagnosis. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) with prostate cancer and fasting blood sugar (FBS) with diabetes were chosen for this discussion. References are included.

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- Suggest how understanding the course of a disease can be used to better measure and interpret morbidity. Provide specific examples to support your response.
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"Screening": Need assistance with the following: In 225 words and a reference

- Screening is one approach used by epidemiologists to identify and detect disease. Assess one screening method used in epidemiology, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this method. Provide specific examples to support your response.
- Screening is typically done before symptoms occur in contrast to diagnostics testing, which takes place after disease symptoms have been manifested in the patient(s). Diagnostic testing often requires expensive, specialized equipment that is more time consuming, and may involve more pain, discomfort, or risks. Evaluate the pros and cons of screening and diagnostic testing, and make recommendations for the best possible blend of the two (or for the exclusive use of one). Explain your rationale.

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