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    Comparison of Nursing Theories

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    Please help me get started on a 400 - 700 word, APA formatted paper. Select a core concept that is common to two or more nursing theories; compare and analyze the concept definitions among the selected theories. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

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    This is an interesting essay assignment. Have you given some thought to the core concept that you want to focus on e.g. caring, wellness, health, ideas about the person, etc? One approach to help you decide is to look at several theories and the main concepts of each theory, and this will help to sketch out a single concept common to all theories. Then, it provides a brief illustrative example drawing form the material in the first section, making several comparisons to get you started. I also provided several additional articles to draw on and an excellent APA resource, as well.

    Like all academic papers, of course, this paper will include an introduction (e.g. purpose statement, and brief introduction to topic), body (e.g. several nursing theories compared on one core concept common to all theories e.g. caring, etc.) and conclusion (e.g. restate purpose and sum up main points of comparison).


    1. Prepare a 400 - 700 word, APA formatted paper. Select a core concept that is common to two or more nursing theories; compare and analyze the concept definitions among the selected theories. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    Some of the possible Nursing Theorists and Nursing Theories to consider for this assignment include:

    1. Florence Nightingale
    2. Hildegard Peplau
    3. Fay Abdella
    4. Ida Jean Orlando
    5. Dorothy Johnson
    6. Martha Rogers
    7. Dorothea Orem
    8. Imogene King
    9. Betty Neuman
    10. Sister Calista Roy
    11. Jean Watson
    12. Rosemary Rizzo Parse
    13. Madeleine Leininger
    14. Patricia Benner

    You might consider one of the core concepts of caring or other core concepts (e.g. person, environment, health and nursing) for the comparisons across several of the above nursing theories (the information in the next section is drawn form one source: URL: http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/arohap/aphome/NURS3006/Resources/theorists.ppt, which provides an excellent overview of the theories and concepts to consider).

    (1) Person
    · Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and socio-cultural components
    · Individual, family, or community

    (2) Environment
    · All internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person

    (3) Health
    · Degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person

    (4) Nursing
    · Actions, characteristics and attributes of person giving care

    Let's look at how each theory explains caring and also at other four core concepts for each nursing theory, of which you can focus on one for your 400-700-word essay.

    1. Florence Nightingale's nursing theory

    It is an Environmental Theory. Florence Nightingale was the first nursing theorist. At that time, unsanitary conditions posed health hazard (Notes on Nursing, 1859). She focused on 5 components of environment, including ventilation, light, warmth, effluvia, and noise. She argued that external influences could prevent, suppress or contribute to disease or death. Nightingale's ideas on the four core concepts are as follows.

    · Person
    · Patient who is acted on by nurse
    · Affected by environment
    · Has reparative powers
    · Environment
    · Foundation of theory. Included everything, physical, psychological, and social
    · Health
    · Maintaining well-being by using a person's powers
    · Maintained by control of environment
    · Nursing
    · Provided fresh air, warmth, cleanliness, good diet, quiet to facilitate person's reparative process

    2. Hildegard Peplau

    Peplau's nursing theory is Interpersonal Relations Model. It is based on psychodynamic nursing , using an understanding of one's own behavior to help others identify their difficulties. She applies principles of human relations and the patient has a felt need. Peplau's ideas on the core concepts of the metaparadigm include:

    · Person: An individual; a developing organism who tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs; Lives in instable equilibrium

    · Environment- Not defined

    · Health: implies forward movement of the personality and human processes toward creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living

    · Nursing: A significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with others to make health possible. Involves problem-solving

    3. Fay Abdella- Topology of 21 Nursing Problems

    Abdella's model includes a topology of 21 nursing problems. It is a list of 21 nursing problems, which is a condition presented or faced by the patient or family. The model lists the problems in 3 categories (physical, social and emotional). According to this model, the nurse must be a good problem solver. Adella's core concepts have the following theoretical implications:

    · Nursing: A helping profession; A comprehensive service to meet patient's needs; Increases or restores self-help ability
    · Uses 21 problems to guide nursing care
    · Health: Excludes illness; no unmet needs and no actual or anticipated impairments
    · Person: One who has physical, emotional, or social needs; the recipient of nursing care.
    · Environment: did not discuss much; includes room, home, and ...

    Solution Summary

    Through illustrative example, this solution provides assistance in comparing nursing theories on one core concept that is common to two or more nursing theories. It also provides an overview of 13 nursing theories as a backdrop. Supplemented with three articles on three nursing theories and an excellent APA resource.