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Compare and contrast three-four theorist sites on the internet for availability of content related to their theory model, ability to use their model in nursing practice settings and currency of the website.

How available is it to research the theory?
What articles, books, journals have been published since the development of the theory?
How or where is the theory best applicable to nursing practice?

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Have you researched the Internet yet? What was your experience? Did you find it difficult, like I did to locate information on the specific nursing theorists websites?

Let's take a closer look.


Nursing Theory is used to: Define commonalities of the variables in a stated field of inquiry; guide nursing research and actions; predict practice outcomes; and predict client response. Theory is used to describe, explain, predict and prescribe.

1. Compare and contrast three-four theorist sites on the internet for availability of content related to their theory model, ability to use their model in nursing practice settings and currency of the website.

It was not readily available. First I used several nursing theorists names, and did not locate any direct websites. Then I used as search words: "Nursing theorists homepages." Many of the theorists were listed, but many of them either do not have a homepage or they are not working. Most theorists have secondary information written about them and their theories (see http://www.madeleine-leininger.com/en/index.shtml). Is this what you found as well? It was difficult to locate the websites.

Let's look at the following three websites:

(1) Madeleine Leininger's website (see http://www.madeleine-leininger.com/en/index.shtml).

Leininger's website is not personal but managed by the webmasters, so it is an impersonal collection of information about the theorist and theory and works. It says that she "is the foundress of the worldwide Transcultural Nursing movement. She remains as one of nursing's most prolific writers and the foremost authority throughout the world in the field of cultural care."

However, there is some information about her theory on the Interent. She also has her resource section at http://www.madeleine-leininger.com/en/resources.shtml, which is pay per document. She lists her books at URL: http://www.madeleine-leininger.com/en/bookstore.shtml. She sells DVD sets at http://www.madeleine-leininger.com/en/dvd.shtml. So, if you so not mind paying for the information, there are a lot of resources to learn about her theory.

However, it is not readily available and applicable from the website.

(2) Betty Neuman (http://www.neumann.edu/academics/undergrad/nursing/model.asp).

Her website is the website for the Betty Neuman College. There are links provided on the homepage to information about her theory (see http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/index.htm).

Unlike the ample resources, albeit for sale of the above theory, the information on Neuman's theory is limited, as is the information of using the model in practice (see excerpt from the web link below). However, for those who know the model, the theory is a detail overview and somewhat useful in applying the concepts to practice.


The main use of the Neuman Model in practice and in research is that its concentric layers allow for a simple classification of how severe a problem is. For example, since the line of normal defense represents dynamic balance, it represents homeostasis, and thus a lack of stress. If a stress response is perceived by the patient or assessed by the nurse, then there has been an invasion of the normal line of defense and a major contraction of the flexible line of defense. Infection or other invasion of the lines of resistance indicates failure of both lines of defense. Thus, the level of insult can be quantified allowing for graduated interventions. Furthermore each person variable can be operationalized and the relationship to the normal line of defense or stress response can be analyzed. The drawback of this is that there is no way to know whether our operationalization of the person variables is a good representation of the underlying theoretical structures.

For example, Eileen Gigliotti published a research article in 1999 based on the Neuman Systems Model. The study investigated the relationship of multiple role stress to the psychological and sociocultural variables of the flexible line of defense. If multiple role stress had occurred, then the normal line of defense had been invaded. Questionnaire instruments were used to operationalize the psychological component with perceived role as a student and as a mother; the sociocultural component with social support, the normal line of defense as perceived multiple role stress.

Upon analysis, no conclusions could be made about the normal line of defense simply on the basis of the psychological component and sociocultural component. By dichotomizing the data by median age, however, a relationship between them could be described. Thus the relationship between the normal line of defense and the psychological and sociocultural components could only be described by taking into account the developmental component. It indicates that the components of the flexible line of defense interact in very complex ways and it may be difficult and dangerous to overgeneralize their interaction. (excerpted from http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/implications.htm).

(3) Imogene King (see http://www.enursescribe.com/imogene_king.htm).

Information about her theory:

Imogene King's model is a model of three interacting systems: personal, interpersonal, and social. In her theory of goal attainment, she states that client goals are met through the transaction ...

Solution Summary

Compares and contrasts three-four theorist sites on the internet for availability of content related to their theory model, ability to use their model in nursing practice settings and currency of the website.