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Nutirtion, Blood Alcohol Level and Eating Disorders

1. Roger is 81 years old and lives alone in an apartment. He is taking medication for congestive heart disease, hypertension, and GERD (Gastric esophageal reflux disease). The meds include antacids, antihypertensive drugs, and diuretics. He also takes laxatives regularly since he struggles with constipation. His daughter has been concerned because her father hasn't been himself lately. He seems distant and uninterested in socializing. He doesn't admit to losing weight, but she questions this because he is complaining that his dentures aren't fitting properly, and he hasn't asked her to help buy groceries as frequently lately.

a. Could Roger benefit from any vitamin or mineral supplements?
b. How do Roger's nutritional needs differ from those of a 40 year old man?
c. What programs could Roger's daughter suggest that might help Roger socialize and eat better?

2. Use the attached table to estimate blood alcohol level.

a Sue weighs 120 pounds and Michael weighs 200 pounds. Each just drank a 12 oz beer. Who has the greater blood alcohol?

b. Fred's blood alcohol is .068. He weighs 220 pounds. How many drinks did he have?

c. Sally weighs 140 pounds and her blood alcohol is.080. Who had more to drink, Fred or Sally?

3.
a. What are the 3 categories of eating disorders?
b. Describe the psychological issues pertaining to anorexia and bulimia.
c. Explain how eating disorders can affect nutritional status and general health.

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Solution Preview

Interesting questions. Let's take a closer look. I also the table (showing calculations for question #2) and two supporting articles.

RESPONSE:

1. Roger is 81 years old and lives alone in an apartment. He is taking medication for congestive heart disease, hypertension, and GERD (Gastric esophageal reflux disease). The meds include antacids, anti-hypertensive drugs, and diuretics. He also takes laxatives regularly since he struggles with constipation. His daughter has been concerned because her father hasn't been himself lately. He seems distant and uninterested in socializing. He doesn't admit to losing weight, but she questions this because he is complaining that his dentures aren't fitting properly, and he hasn't asked her to help buy groceries as frequently lately.

a. Could Roger benefit from any vitamin or mineral supplements?

Yes, Roger could benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements. First, though, he should see his doctor who can rule in or out vitamin deficiencies and side effects related to his medication. In general, potential side effects of diuretics include increased urination, weakness, dizziness, impotence, and dehydration and, depending on the type of diuretic, potassium decrease or increase, or sodium decrease. (1) Therefore, this needs to be ruled out as low or high levels of potassium is serious and could be linked to some of Roger's presenting problems and potassium can impact mental functioning and other serious health problems. So, ruling out any side effects of the prescribed drugs or vitamin deficiencies is important, especially Vitamin B 12, sodium and potassium levels. A vitamin B-12 deficiency, for instance, can lead to senility, paralysis and other neurological problems, all of which can be corrected if diagnosed early. Untreated, the problems can become permanent. (3) This is the place to start for Roger.

Vitamin and mineral supplements are often recommended. For example, it is clear that nutrition can powerfully influence cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is also clear that the effects of classical nutritional deficiency diseases upon mental function constitute only a small part of a rapidly expanding list of interfaces between nutrition and the mind. (2) Even in the absence of laboratory validation of nutritional deficiencies, numerous studies utilizing rigorous scientific designs have demonstrated impressive benefits from nutritional supplementation. (2)

However, it is important to have age appropriate vitamins supplements for Roger and to make sure that he is not taking too much of any one vitamin, especially the fat soluble vitamins (Vitamin A), which can also have adverse effects, such as weakness, etc. Increased Vitamin D is also recommended to increase the metabolism of calcium, which becomes sluggish as we get older. The best way to make sure to get the essential vitamins is to have well balanced meals.

b. How do Roger's nutritional needs differ from those of a 40 year old man?

The Department of Agriculture suggests a diet of about 1,600 calories a day for most older adults, including six servings from the bread and grain group; two fruit servings; three vegetable servings; two to three dairy servings; and 5 ounces from the meat group. Aravich and other nutritional experts recommend increasing calcium servings to five a day to avoid deficiencies. (3)

Roger could increase his fiber ...

Solution Summary

In referecne to the three case scenarios, this solution addresses the question in some detail regarding nutrition, measures of blood alcohol levels and eating disorders.

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