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    Epidemiological Triangles and African Americans

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    1. Introduction— Introduction to high risk populations and the role of the DNP in identifying these populations

    2. Identify a high-risk population—(African Americans)-- Discuss the rationale for the high risk status. Explore the population and their risk factors in light of the epidemiological triangle.

    3. Adverse Health Outcomes-- Based on research, address the adverse health outcomes of the African American high-risk population. (If multiple high risk factors, please address).

    4. Utilization of Epidemiology Principles and Terminology-- Utilize the proper epidemiological terminology to describe the African American high risk populations and their risk factors

    5. Conclusion

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    High risk populations are those identified as having increased risk of developing certain health problems. Genetic predisposition and to some extent, cultural influence, combine ask risk factors. The role of the advanced practice nurse (DNP) is to intervene in a manner that reduces risk and/or outcomes of risk factors. Interventions can include education on risk factors and their reduced (when related to cultural influence and lifestyle), screening and risk identification, and activities that aid in reducing the impact of risk, such as effective treatments and preventive measures. Typically, the DNP addresses these health issues from a community perspective, though he or she will also address risks on an individual level, if the DNP is involved in clinical practice that provides health care services. Risks for developing certain health problems based on genetic influence are known as intrinsic factors. Those based on cultural background and lifestyle, those in which certain health behaviors contribute to susceptibility of health problems, are known as extrinsic factors (International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2014). The DNP cannot change the intrinsic factors, so screening for certain health problems in populations will consider whether intrinsic factors exist, while also identifying the extrinsic factors, with behavioral health assessment.

    Identify a High Risk Population: African Americans
    African Americans, as a high risk population, face many health challenges other populations face. However, within this population, certain diseases are more prevalent and members of the population are at greater risk of either developing certain diseases or of experiencing more negative outcomes. African Americans have more asthma than other ethnic groups in the U.S., are more likely to suffer from sarcoidosis, experience more deadly lung scarring, and to die from lung cancer, though fewer African Americans smoke than other groups. The incidence of SIDS is also higher in the African American population (Fowler, 2008). Cardiovascular disease affects twice as many African Americans as whites, though they make up 13% of the U.S. population. They are more likely to have limbs
    amputated from long standing Diabetes, and to have poorer cancer outcomes.

    Some of the factors that increase risk of health issues are genetic. But, genetic predisposition does not entirely explain outcomes. Fowler (2008) explains that many poor health outcomes in African Americans stem from health disparities, or factors that can be addressed either by the population itself or by community organizations and government policy. The incidence of various forms of lung disease may be linked to genetic predisposition. But making the connection is a challenge when many African Americans live in the poorest areas of the community, where air quality is less than satisfactory and families are exposed to more pollutants. Using the epidemiological triangle model, members of the population are identified as the host. The environment is the living situation in
    proximity to industry or congested urban areas, while the agents are toxins in the air that can potentially
    lead to respiratory inflammation and illness.

    The ...