Discuss sources of bias for both quantitative and qualitative research. For quantitative research, be sure to address both random and systematic bias. You may use examples from the articles you selected as illustrations of bias and/or preventing bias.
Researchers often identify the research problem and then go in search of a theory. Discuss the disadvantages of doing this. What does the textbook recommend that researchers do to assure a true fit between theory and designing the study?
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Nursing research addresses issues important to the discipline of nursing. Some of these issues relate to the profession itself, education of nurses, patient and family needs, and issues within the health care delivery system. Once research is completed, it is important to disseminate or communicate the findings. One method of separating this information is through publications. These can be found in professional journals. Nursing research uses many methods to study clinical problems (Box 5-3). There are two broad approaches to research: quantitative and qualitative methods.
Montalvo, I: The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI). Online J Issues Nurs. 12(3), 2007, http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume122007/No3Sept07/NursingQualityIndicators.aspx, Accessed October 14, 2010.
Box 5-3 Types of Research
• Historical research: Studies designed to establish facts and relationships concerning past events. Example: Study examining the societal factors that led to the acceptance of advanced practice nurses by patients.
• Exploratory research: Initial study designed to develop or refine the dimensions of phenomena or to develop or refine a hypothesis about the relationships among phenomena. Example: Pilot study testing the benefits of a new exercise program for older adults with dementia.
• Evaluation research: Study that tests how well a program, practice, or policy is working. Example: Study measuring the outcomes of an informational campaign designed to improve parents' ability to follow immunization schedules for their children.
• Descriptive research: Study that measures characteristics of persons, situations, or groups and the frequency with which certain events or characteristics occur. Example: Study to examine RNs' biases toward caring for obese patients.
• Experimental research: Study in which the investigator controls the study variable and randomly assigns subjects to different conditions to test the variable. Example: RCT comparing chlorhexidine with Betadine in reducing the incidence of IV-site phlebitis.
• Correlational research: Study that explores the interrelationships among variables of interest without any active intervention by the researcher. Example: Study examining the relationship between RNs' educational levels and their satisfaction in the nursing ...
Determining which research method to use is critical in determining if the information has the the most validity. There are many bias within nursing about which method will yield the most accurate results. This has many implications when we look at using the data to increase the quality of patient outcomes.