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Identifying Different Elements within Research

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Identify and answer the following question for both articles linked below.
- What was the research question?
- What were the independent variables?
- What was the dependent variable?
- What was the sample size and how was it chosen?
- What was the experimental design and use of control group?
- Were the instruments of measurement shown to be reliable and valid?
- What data types were included?
- Describe the statistics used, what they were used for, and the results.
- What were the researchers' conclusions?
- How did they answer the research question(s)?
- How was error controlled?
- Did you see any concerns with the research study? If so, what?


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Interestingly, some of the question you are required to find can be elusive. This can make it difficult to assess the effectiveness of the study being reviewed and how to determine its usefulness in future research. Although highly dependent on the writing style of the researcher and the publishing requirements of the journal, current research has a 3-4 consistent parts. The abstract is meant to be a brief description of the study and findings which allows the reader to determine if they want to read further. Below are the standard parts.

Introduction/Purpose: Usually provides background information on the issue and why it is a significant research problem.

Method: This should give you the research design and how it was used. It should also provide some rationale as to why the particular method was selected and how the researcher ensures that the data/instrument is valid and reliable. Reliability has to do with the data collected and validity has to do with the manner or instrument of collection. You can not have reliable data without a valid collection instrument, although you can have a valid collection instrument without reliable data. A quick example would be a study that requires an item to be weighed on a scale. Validity would be the taring/resetting of the scale as well testing it for accuracy. Reliability would be more about the presence or absence of bias in the sample. This is the area that a lot of your assignment is based on.

Results: This section is where the collected data is presented.

Conclusion/Discussion: This area is where the significance of the findings are analyzed and future research topics suggested.

Article 1

DeKeyser Ganz, F., et al. (2009). ICU nurses' oral-care practices and the current best evidence. Journal of ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides detailed answers to the given questions for the first article and hints for finding the information on the second article, so the student can work through it.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Mixed Method and Action Research Review

Please provide assistance preparing a 4-5 page paper regarding program evaluation (case study #1) and action research (case study #2). Can you please help?

Compare the core research components of the two attached case studies, making sure to analyze the following:

The overall strategy or design, its appropriateness, and the author's rationale for its use

The strategy or design selected for this study

The problem statement

The purpose of the study and its guiding questions

The research questions which addressed the quantitative data and those which addressed the qualitative data (if stated)

The sample and sampling technique used for both the quantitative and qualitative methods

The data collection and analytic techniques employed and their appropriateness. Describe these in detail.

The quantitative data collection techniques used

The qualitative data collection techniques used

Whether the way the data were collected corresponded with the mixed-method strategy used (for example, whether the data were in fact collected sequentially or concurrently)

How quantitative data were analyzed

How qualitative data were analyzed

How the quantitative and qualitative data analyses were used to explain the findings

Ethical issues which might exist with this study and why.

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