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Atheroslcerosis & Fish Oil, Trans Fats,Diabetes, Cholesterol

Briefly explain the effects of the following on atherosclerosis. Be sure to include some data on the epidemiology (statistics on the effects of the substance) and the molecular effect or actions:

1. Fish oil
2. Trans fats in diet
3. Diabetes
4. cRP and inflammation:
5. Cholesterol subtypes (HDL2 and dense small LDL or larger less dense cholesterol):
6. List 3 dietary items that could help prevent heart disease, explain and/or give citation.

Solution Preview

Briefly explain the effects of the following on atherosclerosis. Be sure to include some data on the epidemiology (statistics on the effects of the substance) and the molecular effect or actions:

1. Fish oil: In a study (Parks, Rudell, 1990) with a nonhuman primate model, the African green monkey, it was found one group was fed with about 20 percent of dietary calories from the fish oil group (approximately 5 g/1000 cal of n-3 fatty acids) compared to a group fed lard. The cholesterol concentrations were 1/3 lower in the fish oil group. Furthermore, the fish oil group had smaller LDL particles. The findings demonstrate n-3 fatty acid fed group had less atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and in the aorta. Fish oil appears to effect cholesterol metabolism and limit atherosclerosis.

In another study, it was found that triglyceride levels could be lowered if active people take fish oil before eating a fatty meal (Thomas, Sun, Donahue, 2004). The research discovered that peak triglyceride levels could be reduced by 38 percent if a fish oil supplement is taken prior to eating a high-fat meal. Those participants who exercised and took a fish supplement were able to reduce their triglyceride levels by 50 percent. This is substantial since prolonged elevation of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Fish oil lowers triglyceride levels, which are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, fish oil increases HDL, further reducing atherosclerosis. It also lowers your blood pressure and prevents blood clots. However, the FDA states, ""Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. FDA evaluated the data and determined that, although there is scientific evidence supporting the claim, the evidence is not conclusive."

References:
1. Parks, JS, Rudel, LL. (1990 Oct) Effect of fish oil on atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. PubMed.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2282103.
2. Thomas, Sun, Donahue. (2004). Exercise and fish oil supplement dramatically decreases risk of atherosclerosis. NewsMedical. Retrieved from http://www.news-medical.net/news/2004/06/10/2319.aspx.

2. Trans fats in diet: Trans fats in diet appear to "gum up the cellular machinery that keeps blood moving through arteries and veins" (Yates, 2009) according to the August 2009 issue of Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the result of the buildup of plaque in the arteries to the point where blood cannot flow. Trans fats, which are fats in which the double bonds in essential fatty acids are re-arranged through hydrogenation, causing a lower melting ...

Solution Summary

This detailed solution briefly explains the effects of the following on atherosclerosis:
1. Fish oil
2. Trans fats in diet
3. Diabetes
4. cRP and inflammation:
5. Cholesterol subtypes (HDL2 and dense small LDL or larger less dense cholesterol)
It also includes data on the epidemiology (statistics on the effects of the substance) and the molecular effect or actions. In addition, the solution lists 3 dietary items that could help prevent heart disease. APA references are included.

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