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Memory and intelligence

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Articulate the relationship between memory and intelligence.

What is the relationship between thought (cognition) and language?
How are memory, thought, language, and intelligence integrated as components of higher level psychological functioning? In what ways do these high mental operations determine the nature of human behavior in everyday life?

How do these mental operations relate to the biological functions, especially the structure and function of the human central nervous system?

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Describe short-term memory and long-term memory in relationship to each other.
The following article summarizes this topic succinctly. The other articles address other aspects, or get really technical - this one is easily readable, understandable and short. It is part of a class lesson at Georgia Tech.
Human Memory

Memory is the next part of our model of the user as an information processing system. There are generally three types of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory.
Sensory memory
The sensory memories act as buffers for stimuli received through the senses. A sensory memory exists for each sensory channel: iconic memory for visual stimuli, echoic memory for aural stimuli and haptic memory for touch. Information is passed from sensory memory into short-term memory by attention, thereby filtering the stimuli to only those which are of interest at a given time.
Short-term memory
Short-term memory acts as a scratch-pad for temporary recall of the information under process. For instance, in order to understand this sentence you need to hold in your mind the beginning of the sentence you read the rest.
Short term memory decays rapidly (200 ms.) and also has a limited capacity. Chunking of information can lead to an increase in the short term memory capacity. Thst is the reason why a hyphenated phone number is easier to rememeber than a single long number. The successful formation of a chunk is known as closure. Interference often causes disturbance in short-term memory retention. This accounts for the desire to complete the tasks held in short term memory as soon as possible.
Long-term memory
Long-term memory is intended for storage of information over a long time. Information from the working memory is transferred to it after a few seconds. Unlike in working memory, there is little decay.
Long-term memory structure
There are two types of long-term memory: episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory represents our memory of events and experiences in a serial form. It is from this memory that we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at a given point in our lives. Semantic memory, on the other end, is a structured record of facts, concepts and skills that we have acquired. The information in semantic memory is derived from that in our own episodic memory, such that we can learn new facts or concepts from our experiences.
Long-term memory processes
There are three main activities related to long term memory: storage, deletion and retrieval.
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Solution Summary

Discussion of the similarities and differences in memory and intelligence, with URL references.