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Twelve Ethical Standards: Examples

Give an example of how each of these 12 ethical standards would be used in qualitative research for data collection:

Avoiding harm
Public Communication
Informed Consent
Representation and Misuse of Expertise
Research Misconduct

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In qualitative research, the researcher himself is the instrument. His presence enters the lives of the participants. As such, ethical issues must be taken into account:

Avoiding harm:

Methods utilized should not be harmful to the participants. Since a qualitative research may involve in-depth interview, going to the extent of affecting the respondents emotionally, until he becomes hysterical, is unethical.


"The non-discrimination principle requires the equal treatment of an individual or group irrespective of their particular characteristics, and is used to assess apparently neutral criteria that may produce effects which systematically disadvantage persons possessing those characteristics" (
As applied to research, methods used by the researcher must allow equal treatment of subjects - they must be observed and interviewed in the same manner (or possibly within equal span of time) to ensure that the method of use would not have a bearing on the kind of information obtained. Methods or approaches utilized must not favour or disfavour any subject on a selective basis.


Subjects are there as possible sources of information, not to be exploited or taken advantage of. Their age, educational level, or mental ...

Solution Summary

The twelve ethical standards are determined.