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English as a Second Language

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Pls. read the attached word document (ESL) and answer the followings IN YOUR OWN WORDS:

1. List 3 ideas from the readings that are interesting to you and why.
2. List 2 ideas you are concerned with or wonder about.
3. Describe the following terms with your understanding of how they apply to ESL instruction:
a. English Language Development (ELD)
b. cultural/academic/psychological (CAP) intervention
c. Silent Stage
d. culture shock
e. uprooting experience
f. assimilation
g. acculturation

Thank you.

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The three ideas from the readings that are interesting are that you do not have to be able to speak another language in order to teach that language. This is interesting because one would think that it would almost be impossible to communicate with another person if they cannot speak the same language.

Another idea that was interesting was the importance of being able to read into ones cultural background and how this information is also helpful when it comes to being able to teach a child another language. Cultural backgrounds can be so different that it would be beneficial for one to know small items that would benefit the learner.

The third concept that was interesting was the fact that we cannot force the students who are learners to open up before they are ready. This seems to be forcing the student to not be willing to learn but in reality if we force them to do something they are not ready to do, it could discourage their learning to the point in which they no longer want to try due to embarrassment.

One idea that is concerning is that the parents are not wanting to get involved as one would like. Being able to communicate with the parents is a key concept that most teachers are not used to. Being able to talk with the parent and let them know some of the things that they can do to help their children is so helpful but in most cases the parents do not want to help. If they do want to help an interpreter is needed to communicate the needs of the child to the parent. Sometimes it would also seem ...

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Many managers respond in kind. The Economist, for example, reports that just under half of employers rated language skills as important—a tendency that many link to the laborious struggle to master a foreign language. Others report that language competency was ranked well behind technical competences, leadership skills and career development but ahead of motivation for working abroad, previous success abroad and business vision in gauging the suitability of a candidate for international assignments. Finally, some say language is a misleading proxy of an expatriate's cultural sensitivity and general ability to perform in foreign markets. The CEO of Schering-Plough, for example, noted that "I've met many people who speak three or four languages yet still have a very narrow view of the world. At the same time, I've come across people who speak only English but have a real passion and curiosity about the world and who are very effective in different cultures."


Human resource managers, when asked about the importance of their foreign language needs for employees, regularly respond that foreign language competency adds professional and personal value. Indeed, surveys consistently report that managers who learn one or more foreign languages find ways to make innovative contributions to their company. In the least, the effort to use the local language, no matter how poorly, sends a subtle but consequential cultural message. Explained the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, "Just making the effort to say a few words in the native tongue can make a good impression...It sends a subliminal message that 'we are equal.'" A willingness to communicate in the language of the host country, even if the expatriate is far from fluent, can help build rapport with local employees and improve the manager's effectiveness. Proponents of language skills also point out that countries have different cultural and business expectations that can only be deciphered via the local language. So the expatriate who opts not to learn the local language or insists on only English risks letting cross-cultural illiteracy cut him or her off from local business information, exclude him or her fro influential business networks, complicate relations and negotiation with local officials and make it a struggle to simply chat with local colleagues. Finally, working abroad is a challenge; language limitations can make it isolating. For example, one American woman noted that her inability to speak Turkish made her seven-month stint in Istanbul very lonely. "You can't really mix with the locals. You can't use local transportation because you can't read any of the signs.

But which foreign language should one study? Presently, growth in expatriate positions in concentrated in Western Europe and North America. However, the growing economic reach of the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) over the next few decades highlights the potential reward of language skills that let one easily move throughout these countries. As MNEs struggle to place expatriates in these high-growth markets, for instance, proficiency in these languages will likely translate into salary premiums.

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