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Organization IT structure and communications tools

? When an organization needs to use two or more computer systems, one of three basic processing strategies may be followed:
Centralized
Decentralized
Distributed

? Feasibility analysis is typically done during the investigation stage of systems development.

? The Internet protocol enables traffic to flow on the Internet from one network to another.

? A computer network consists of communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or devices.

? Software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can do and its quality, is called personal productivity software.

? The electronic transmission of signals for communications is called telecommunications.

? Determining the needed hardware and software for a new system is an example of physical design.

? B2B a form of e-commerce, in which the participants are organizations.

? An information system is a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data and information; and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective.

? Prototyping takes an iterative approach to the systems development process.

? The following are the major functions of an information system:

output Function

processing Function

input Function

storage Function

? The primary communications protocol of the Internet is called TCP/IP.

? Software that has the greatest potential to affect the processes that add value to a business because it is designed for specific organizational activities and functions is called application software.

? The format of Internet address on the Web is called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

? Stakeholders are individuals that ultimately benefit from a systems development project.

? DBMS stands for database management system

? A computer-based information system consists of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures.

? eBay is an example of the C2C form of e-commerce.

? A local area network connects computers, called workstations, within a limited geographical area.

? ROM chips are said to be nonvolatile, while RAM chips are volatile.

? A decision support system (DSS) is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices working to support managerial decision making.

? A data warehouse is a collection of data drawn from other databases used by the business.

? More stringent privacy laws would most likely cause higher prices, higher mortgage rates and fewer loans, fewer free Web sites, and less shopping convenience.

? One advantage of database processing is that programs are not dependent on the organization of the data in the database.

? Advantages to outsourcing include access to more skilled and experienced programmers, avoidance of diverting internal staff from current work, and possibly lower costs while disadvantages include losing control of the project, failure of internal developers to learn skills necessary to maintain the system, and failure of the outsourcer to deliver on its claim.

? A group of related bits are called characters (or bytes) that make up a field; while a group of related fields is called a record; a group of related records are called a data file; and finally a group of related data files is called a database.

? Spyware is software that monitors Internet usage and report it back to a server?

? The widespread use of computers has impacted the networked economy and our dependency on the Internet for communications.

? Processing that uses several processing units is called multiprocessing.

? Computers have continued to shrink and their performance/cost ratio has also reduced.

? An organization with a direct connection to the Internet must consider the trade-offs between making its Web, e-mail, and other Internet-related servers easily available to its stakeholders and protecting the servers from unwanted intrusions.

? People can use the Internet to spread negative information about another person or group, and this information can prove very difficult to correct.

? Web browsers have significantly changed the way people use the Internet.

? A type of application package used to back up data is known as backup software while software that protects us from virus infection is called anti-virus detection software.

? The microprocessor and memory are the two most important components in a computer.

? Computer hardware consists of the following:

central processing unit

input and output devices

primary storage

secondary storage

? A mouse and keyboard are considered input devices on a computer system.

? Software is defined as all the computer instructions necessary to perform a function

? The following are uses of the Internet for business:

electronic mail

news groups

telecommuting

live chats

? Java language is a third-generation language

? SQL is a standardized query language for DBMSs.

? Huge collections of related data are often referred to as databases.

? Data security does not guard software and data against disasters.

? ERP software is known as enterprise resource planning.

? The following are threats to privacy that exist in a networked economy:

exposure of information

data surveillance

identity theft

spam and spyware

Solution Preview

"When an organization needs to use two or more computer systems, one of three basic processing strategies may be followed:

Centralized
Decentralized
Distributed"
- That is correct.
Centralized assumes that one (server) computer is dedicated to processing, the remaining computers are clients of the server. For instance, SQL Serve machine is busy with data manipulation, whereas other clients access this machine data needs.

Decentralized assumes that every computer in the networks performs all processing needed.
For instance, every computer in the network could its own Microsoft Office applications installed.

Distributed means processing of a task is performed by many computers in parallel, for instance a complex drawing application could delegate calculation of points on the screen to another, more powerful computer in the network, whereas drawing could be done locally.

? Feasibility analysis is typically done during the investigation stage of systems development.
That is correct.

? The Internet protocol enables traffic to flow on the Internet from one network to another.
That is correct.

? A computer network consists of communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or devices.
- That is correct.

? Software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can do and its quality, is called personal productivity software.
- Correct.

? The electronic transmission of signals for communications is called telecommunications.
Correct.
Telecommunication is widespread and devices that assist the process such as the television, radio and telephone are common in many parts of the world. There is also a vast array of networks that connect these devices, including computer networks, public telephone networks, radio networks and television networks. Computer communication across the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging, is just one of many examples of telecommunication.

? Determining the needed hardware and software for a new system is an example of physical design.
Correct.

? B2B a form of e-commerce, in which the participants are organizations.
Correct. For example, a company that makes chicken feed would sell it to a chicken farm, another company, rather than directly to consumers.

? An information system is a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data and information; and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective.
Correct.
The simplest model that describes the Structure and Behaviour of an Information System takes five objects:

For Structure:
----------------
Repositories, hold data permanent or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc.
Interfaces, exchange information with the non-digital world, such as ...

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