Standard Reduction Potentials: The standard reduction potential, E10, of any redox pair is defined for the half-cell reaction:
Oxidizing agent + n electrons -----> reducing agent
The E10 value for the NAD+/ NADH and pyruvate/lactate conjugate redox pairs are -0.32 V and -0.19 V, respectively.
(a) Which conjugate pair has the greater tendency to lose electrons? Explain.
(b) Which is the stronger oxidizing agent? Explain
(c) Beginning with 1m concentration of each reactant and product at pH 7, in which direction will the following reaction proceed?
Pyruvate + NADH +H+ ------> lactate + NAD+
(d) What is the standard free-energy change (∆G10) at 25 degrees C for the conversion of pyruvate to lactate?
(e) What is the equilibrium constant (K'eq) for this reaction?
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a) NAD+/NADH has greater tendency to lose electrons because they are water soluble cofactors. So these cofactors readily diffuse from the surface of one enzyme to another, acting as a water soluble carrier of electrons.
b) Pyruvate/Lactate is the ...
Solution includes explanation and calculations. 185 words.
General High School Chemistry Questions
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1. For each of the following situations, identify those for which a reaction is likely to occur. For those that do occur, write a net ionic equation.
a) A solution of lead(ll) nitrate mixed with a solution of sodium chloride:
b) A solution of sodium sulfate mixed with a solution of calcium chloride:
c) A solution of magnesium acetate mixed with a solution of silver nitrate
2. Explain why you would expect a BeCl2 molecule to be linear but an SCl2 molecule to be angular.
3. Use the standard enthalpies of formation to determine the change in enthalpy for the combustion of methane gas (CH4(g)).
4. In the reaction, H3BO3 + IO3-  HIO3 + H2BO3-, calculate whether the products or the reactants are favored at equilibrium.
5. Calculate the voltage of a standard cell with the following oxidation-reduction reaction.
I2 + Cu  2I- + Cu2+
6. Draw and give the IUPAC name for 5 isomers of C4H7Cl
7. Give structural formulas for the following compounds.
c) Butyl ethanoate
8. Balance the following equations by the half-cell method. Show both half-cell reactions and identify them as oxidation or reduction.
a) SO32- + MnO4- + H+  Mn2+ + SO42- + H2O(l)
b) Cl2(g) + OH-  Cl- + ClO3- + H2O(l)
c) SO42- + I- + H+  S2- + I2(s) + H2O(l)