1. What are the effects of parochialism and ethnocentrism? How would employees behave if they had those characteristics? How would one respond to workers from another country if they demonstrated those traits?
2. Theory Z adapts selected Japanese management practices to the U.S. environment. Speculate on the reasons some US employees working for a Theory Z organization might still resist those practices. Now create a Theory ZZ approach in which American practices would be adapted to the Japanese environment and culture. What might Theory ZZ be like, and how would it be received?
3. The management of a health-conscious firm wants to stamp out smoking among its employees. A senior vice president asks you to devise a program that would use reinforcement to help people stop smoking. What steps would you recommend?
4. Why is a strong-culture organization at risk of being unresponsive to change? Why is a change in top management often desirable when an organization's culture is no longer adaptive?
1. Parochialism is a view of the world that is very narrow and limited, regional, or even confined to one's own local religious group. For instance, a parochial school is a term that is often synonymous to a school that is supported by a Catholic parish. Ethnocentrism is to strongly stick to one's own ethnic group and their interests including culture, music, even politics. It also means to judge or evaluate the actions of others on the basis of the values that are typical of one's own ethnic group, meaning race, color, or nationality.
The effects of parochialism and ethnocentrism are a tendency for some to misunderstand people who are of a different race or nationality, religion or culture from theirs. As a result it becomes difficult to foster cooperation among people who for some reason have to deal with one another. Examples of this are in a public classroom, or in a workplace where teams have to work together.
Employees with these views of life may be able to work with people who are different from them in these ways, but there is often an element of mistrust, and not being straightforward about how one really feels about others, and this could be difficult to work around.
Businesses with a established presence in a number of countries have found it necessary to explore ways in which to help employees of different cultures to work together profitably. Melvin Washington in his research paper on the subject of intercultural business communication, has found that three main approaches to overcome ethnocentrism have been found and used with mixed success. These are separation, accommodation, and assimilation. The research demonstrated a greater work environment results ...
The solution discusses the effects of parochialism and ethnocentrism.