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1. Explain PR's role and functions within an organization.
2. Explain the impact of effective communications to internal
publics.
3. Describe the differences between advertising and public
relations. Give specific examples of each. Describe when an organization
would use each.
4. Recommend strategies to generate positive publicity. Justify
each.
5. Explain the need for proactive PR planning and reactive crisis
management.

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1. Explain PR's role and functions within an organization.

There are formal definitions of the term "public relations," yet its meaning is self-evident; it is the management of relationships between an organization and the constituencies upon which it depends.

Quite literally, public relations is managing relations with various publics, a role that grows in importance as reputation becomes ever more critical to business success. companies must make it a priority to value the needs of all publics, and to forge good relationships with them. The cornerstone of a good relationship is trust, and trust is based on open and honest communication. Effective public relations tells a company's story in a way that is accurate, honest, and easy to understand, helping to establish a reputation for credibility.

A good relationship also requires a willingness to listen, and true public relations is a two-way process. PR professionals recognize that to manage relationships, they must understand and respect public concerns and viewpoints. They must also go a step further, to serve as the public's advocate within an organization.

In effect, corporate public relations professionals frequently play the role of an outsider. By questioning decisions and their impact on customers, the community, employees, and others, public relation professionals bring the public perspective to an organization, fostering its ability to be responsive to public concerns.

source: http://www.ad-mkt-review.com/public_html/docs/fs050.html

2. Explain the impact of effective communications to internal publics.

Effective internal communication is crucial to the success of any organization. At its core is engaging internal audiences to carry out the organization's goals and strategy. Through strategic internal communication, communicators can build credibility from within, and impact decisions at the highest level within their organization, and drive bottom line results.

Effective communications helps in better coordination, cooperations and efficiency within the internal publics in any organization and thus is a key driver for the success of any organization.

source: http://www.ce.columbia.edu/masters/courses.cfm?PID=2&Content=Descriptions

3. Describe the differences between advertising and public
relations. Give specific examples of each. Describe when an organization
would use each.

1. Paid Space or Free Coverage

Advertising:
The company pays for ad space. You know exactly when that ad will air or be published.

Public Relations:
Your job is to get free publicity for the company. From news conferences to press releases, you're focused on getting free media exposure for the company and its ...

Solution Summary

Explain PR's role and functions within an organization.

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BIOSTATISTICS

2.A group of 25 subjects have their diastolic blood pressures measured. The results, in SPSS are:

|-----------|-------|--------|
|N |Valid |25 |
|-------|--------|
| |Missing|0 |
|-----------|-------|--------|
|Median |85.00 |
|-------------------|--------|
|Mode |82.00 |
|-------------------|--------|
|Minimum |55.00 |
|-------------------|--------|
|Maximum |110.00 |
|-----------|-------|--------|
|Percentiles|25 |71.00 |
| |-------|--------|
| |50 |85.00 |
| |-------|--------|
| |75 |98.00 |
|--------|-------|--------|

Don't worry about values exactly at the endpoints of these intervals. Do the calculations roughly.
(1 point each)

a. What percentage of subjects were from 55 to 85?
b. What percentage of subjects were < 85?
c. What percentage of subjects were from 71 to 85?
d. What percentage of subjects were > 71?
e. What percentage of subjects were > 98?
f. Is there one value more common than the rest, and if so, what is it?

3. Assume you have already been give a Z value. This saves you a step. Consider and determine the following probabilities (1 point each).

A. Pr (-1 < Z < 1)
B. Pr (0 < Z < 1)
C. Pr (Z > 1)
D. Pr (-1 < Z < 0)
E. Pr (Z < -1)
F. Pr (Z > -2)
G. Pr (-1 < Z < 2)

4. Suppose the mean systolic blood pressure in a group of individuals is 150 mmHg, with a standard deviation of 15. Assuming SBP follows a normal distribution in this population, compute (1 point each):

A. Pr (135 < value < 165)
B. Pr (value > 165)
C. Pr (value < 135)
D. Pr (138.75 < value < 161.25)

5 Compute the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of SBP from the previous question. (3 points: 1 each).

In questions 6 - 8, use the 1 and 2 SD rules, without the table.

6.In general, what percentage of a Gaussian data set is within 1 SD of the mean? What percentage is within 2 SD's of the mean? (2 points: 1 each)

7.If the mean grade on an exam was 80, SD = 6, where did about 68% of the grades fall? How about 95%? Assume the grades are Gaussian. (2 points).

8.Consider the following data: 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 40, 200

Use the 68% and 95% rules to test the normality of these data. (2 points).

9.A researcher studying a subtype of lymphocytes obtains a sample mean of 100 per mL, and a standard deviation of 20, with 25 subjects. Within what interval can you be roughly 68% sure the population mean number of these cells per mL lies? How about 95% sure? (2 points)

10.A researcher has a sample of 500 subjects. The mean is 40, median is 20, range 10-100. (2 points each)

a.Could this researcher calculate a useful interval with 95% probability of containing the population mean (using the mean and SEM)? Explain

b.Could the researcher use the mean and SD to usefully estimate where 95% of the individual subject values were? Explain

c)If there were 10 subjects, would your answers to a and b change?

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