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Question 1

Instead of having to choose between making a profit or doing good for society, companies can combine __________ and _____________ to do both while building a solid corporate reputation.
A) ethics; publicity
B) cause marketing; exceptional products
C) corporate social responsibility; senior management authority
D) ethics; corporate social responsibility
E) cause marketing; corporate philanthropy
Question 2
It is critical for marketers to provide leadership in applying ethics and ethical principles because:
A) senior management has little time or inclination to focus on business or marketing ethics.
B) marketers are seen as basically ethical as opposed to salespeople, who cannot be relied upon to act ethically.
C) the profession has been singled out for past abuses by a minority of marketers, and the profession as a whole has a responsibility to raise its profile.
D) All of these
E) None of these
Question 3
The Johnson & Johnson Credo, developed by Robert Wood Johnson, is often cited as an important document because:
A) Johnson was a leading philosopher of ethics who bridged the gap between academic philosophy and the world of business.
B) it was drafted as a response to the Tylenol recall, and it demonstrated how effectively business could respond to external stimuli and situations.
C) it places the focus clearly on shareholders who have the greatest stake in the success of the firm.
D) it guided company executives in a difficult decision-making time with very specific advice.
E) it became the standard and model for all pharmaceutical companies who have improved on the timeliness of response.
Question 4
Marketers have been identified with many different types of unethical behavior. Which of the following types of unethical behavior is LEAST likely to be observed in marketing environments?
A) High pressure sales techniques.
B) Deceptive sales tactics.
C) Misrepresentation of company data.
D) Misleading advertising.
E) Kickbacks to corporate buyers from supply chain vendors.
Question 5
Which of these is one of the "ethical norms" in the AMA's code of ethics?
A) The survival of the firm is essential; if it fails many are without jobs and products.
B) Marketers must do no harm.
C) With constant attention to the dynamic marketplace, marketers must also be prepared to make changes in ethical standards to keep pace.
D) Marketers must respect the human dignity and human rights of all stakeholders.
E) Ethics are essential for any profession, but professionalism cannot take priority over the needs of the firm.
Question 6
Firms with ______________ tend to be more socially responsible.
A) a wide product line and global presence
B) longevity of at least 50 years
C) strong ethical climates
D) diverse senior management
E) strong profits

Question 7
The Ethical Decision-Making Framework includes all of the following steps, EXCEPT:
A) identify issues.
B) choose a course of action.
C) gather information and identify stakeholders.
D) brainstorm and evaluate alternatives.
E) consult appropriate regulatory officials.
Question 8
What do the Ethical Decision-Making Metrics I and II (Exhibits 3.6 and 3.8) offer the marketer?
A) A complete checklist of ethical issues when taken together.
B) A range of choices, although the marketer can only chose one or the other.
C) Protection from accusations of unethical behavior.
D) Measurements of possible consequences.
E) A framework for looking at multiple dimensions of an issue at a time when the decision maker may be under stress.
Question 9
When a major ethical issue arises, which of the following stakeholders are likely to be affected?
A) Investors
B) Customers
C) Senior management
D) Community
E) All of these
Question 10
When developing a marketing strategy, ethics should:
A) be considered, but only after other basic parameters have been set.
B) be balanced against the higher-priority demands for profits and returns to shareholders.
C) be considered early in the planning phase to avoid having to ask questions throughout the process.
D) be considered throughout the process, using different questions at different stages.
E) be handled by outsiders or consultants, since the marketers will likely be too involved with the details to be objective.

Question 11

Scenarios are an excellent way to develop ethical decision making because:
A) stories can be used to protect innocent people by changing names and identifiers.
B) stories are simple and direct, which makes the key points of scenarios easier to grasp.
C) scenarios are developed by professionals, which makes them more effective.
D) there are usually no single correct answers, and the scenario approach offers different kinds of answers.
E) scenarios don't require students to apply principles or metrics.
Question 12
__________________ refer(s) to the actions of a firm to address a wide range of social, environmental and ethical interactions with its community. Though somewhat controversial, these actions are significant in that the company undertakes them voluntarily, and the firm realizes that these actions can be profitable, too.
A) Public relations and publicity
B) Corporate activism
C) Corporate social responsibility
D) A code of ethics
E) Corporate culture

Question 13
The consumer, the company and causes are considered CSR _______________, while employee and financial well-being and awareness and support of issues are considered CSR ________________.
A) inputs; outputs
B) liabilities; assets
C) causes; effects
D) reasons; results
E) values; actions

16. Retailing ___________________ the supply chain.
A. sits at the end of
B. is in the center of
C. maximizes the length of
D. creates rigidity in
E. focuses on production in
17. Retailing is where marketing:
A. is replaced by personal selling.
B. meets the consumer.
C. meets managing.
D. sells itself to the corporation.
E. creates corporate value.
18. Retailers address customers' needs for value by providing goods and services:
A. where the customer wants it.
B. when the customer wants it.
C. at the price the customer is willing to pay.
D. in the right color, size, or style the customer wants.
E. all of the above.
19. Natalie is opening a retail store specializing in hard-to-find gift items. Before she opens
her store, what question will Natalie need to address?
A. Where will customers want her products?
B. When will customers want her products?
C. What prices will customers be willing to pay?
D. What assortment of products will customers want?
E. all of the above.
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
20. Retailing is defined as the set of business activities that:
A. focuses on a firm's core values.
B. offers multiple supply chain relationships.
C. adds value to products and services sold to final consumers.
D. separates wholesaling from manufacturing.
E. occurs in brick and mortar space.
21. Which of the following is NOT one of the typical outlets used by retailers?
A. catalogs.
B. over the Internet.
C. restaurants.
D. business requests for proposals (RFPs)
E. brick and mortar stores.
22. The key factor distinguishing retailers from other members of the supply chain is:
A. they sell to consumers, businesses, and government.
B. they sell to everyone.
C. they use advertising to generate demand.
D. they employ people in personal selling.
E. they sell to customers for their personal use.
23. Wholesalers sell to all of the following EXCEPT:
A. businesses.
B. manufacturers.
C. retailers.
D. consumers.
E. industrial users.
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
24. Which of the following is NOT one of the broad factors manufacturers must consider
when establishing a strategy for getting their products into the hands of the ultimate
A. Choosing retail partners.
B. Identifying types of retailers.
C. Facilitating retail strategy.
D. Managing a multichannel strategy
E. all of the above are considered when establishing a strategy.
25. Aaron has designed innovative accessories for hard-core bicycling enthusiasts. He knows
where and how he will make them, and he needs to turn his attention to the getting the
products to the customers. As he chooses retail partners, which of the following should he
A. Look at the channel structure.
B. Determine where the target customers will expect to find this kind of product.
C. Consider the characteristics of the channel members.
D. Consider distribution intensity.
E. All of the above.
26. In the past, _____________________ dominated supply chains.
A. retailers
B. manufacturers
C. government
D. wholesalers
E. distributors
27. Today, _______________ dominate their supply chains.
A. large retailers
B. manufacturers
C. government
D. wholesalers
E. distributors
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
28. Retailers like Wal-Mart, Home Depot, and Kroger dictate to their suppliers all of the
following EXCEPT:
A. which competitors they should collaborate with.
B. what should be made.
C. how products should be configured.
D. when products should be delivered.
E. what products should cost.
29. The degree of difficulty a manufacturer will face in trying to get retailers to purchase its
products will be determined by how vertically integrated the channel is, the relative power of
the manufacturer and the retailer, and ________________________.
A. the warranties the product carries
B. the success - or lack of success - in test markets
C. the amount of marketing research the manufacturer has done prior to the launch
D. the strength of the brand and whether it is desired
E. whether the product is seasonal
30. When a well-established firm has chosen a new product as part of its growth strategy, it
may be required to find new retailers to carry the new product. One of the critical factors in
choosing new retail partners will be:
A. the power of the brand.
B. its overall reputation as a manufacturer.
C. where customers might expect to find the manufacturer's products.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above is particularly important.
31. Knowing customer expectations is essential. Retailers need to know which manufacturers
their customers prefer, while manufacturers need to know ______________.
A. if customers are using credit cards or cash to make purchases.
B. how many outlets the retailers have.
C. where their target market customers expect to find their products.
D. whether the products will fill self-actualization needs through satisfying these expectations.
E. whether customers will find the store atmospherics appropriate to the neighborhood or
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
32. Generally, the larger and more sophisticated the channel member, the less likely that they
will ______________.
A. use intermediaries.
B. rely on marketing research.
C. use multi-channel marketing.
D. use intensive distribution.
E. be concerned about competitive actions.
33. John had worked for a well-known and very large retail company. He left that company to
go to a smaller company, and in doing so, he discovered that the channel functions were
handled very differently in the smaller firm. Looking back at his experience, he noticed larger
firms ___________________.
A. perform many different channel functions themselves.
B. have more control in the channel.
C. can be more efficient.
D. can save money.
E. All of the above.
34. There are three types of supply chain distribution intensity:
A. intensive, exclusive, and selective.
B. primary, secondary and tertiary.
C. administered, vertical, and independent.
D. global, national, and local.
E. corporate, contractual, and independent.
35. Some companies want to get its products into as many outlets as possible, understanding
that the more exposure it gets, the more of its products it will sell. If this is consistent with the
company's overall strategy, it will choose __________________.
A. wide-coverage distribution
B. collectively exhaustive distribution
C. intensive distribution
D. exclusive distribution
E. selective distribution
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
36. When Creative Pen Company designed a new, ergonomically-friendly pen, they wanted
to, literally, get in the hands of as many consumers as possible. Creative Pen will likely
choose a(n) ______________ distribution intensity.
A. intensive
B. exclusive
C. selective
D. collective
E. variable
37. If a company has a limited supply or is just launching a product, it might want to select
__________________, which would help ensure enough inventory to ensure the customer has
an adequate selection.
A. trade restraint distribution
B. selective distribution
C. monopolistic distribution
D. oligopolistic distribution
E. exclusive distribution
38. Heartland Plantation produces classic food products like stone-ground grits and wild rice.
The company has limited production capacity and wants to control where its products are
sold. Heartland will likely choose a(n) __________________ distribution intensity.
A. intensive
B. exclusive
C. simplistic
D. collective
E. variable
39. ______________ distribution intensity helps a seller maintain a particular image and
control the flow of merchandise into an area.
A. Intensive
B. Endogenous
C. Selective
D. Collective
E. Variable
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
40. If a manufacturer wasn't happy with either intensive or exclusive distribution, a logical
choice, which incorporates some features from both, would be ______________.
A. moderate distribution
B. compromise distribution
C. case by case distribution
D. evolutionary distribution
E. selective distribution
41. Full-line discount, category specialist, and specialty stores are all ________________
types of retailers.
A. food
B. general merchandise
C. price sensitive
D. limited demand
E. special appeal
42. If a food producer had a full range of products, in a number of different containers sizes,
which kind of store would the company NOT likely choose?
A. conventional supermarket
B. supercenter
C. warehouse club
D. convenience stores
E. None of the above. The producer should be in all of these stores.
43. Paul's family has owned and operated a small chain of conventional supermarkets.
Competition from a variety of other kinds of retailers has adversely affected the business. To
address the new competitive reality, Paul wants to apply what he recently learned as a
marketing major and he has recommended his family should:
A. emphasize products with a high gross margin.
B. target health-conscious and ethnics consumers with the products that would appeal to them.
C. provide a better shopping environment within the store to make it more appealing to
D. offer more private label brands.
E. All of the above
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
44. Supercenters have become the fastest retail growing category by combining broad
assortments of groceries and general merchandise products. ____________ dominates this
category with more than 80 percent of the supercenters in the United States.
A. Target
B. Meijer
C. Kmart
D. Kroger
E. WalMart
45. If Ellen is shopping at a warehouse club, relative to a supermarket, she can expect:
A. an irregular assortment of food and general merchandise.
B. lower service
C. lower prices
D. products for both consumers and small businesses
E. All of the above
46. A manufacturer of high-end products might consider selling products in a warehouse club
if ________________________.
A. there were no high-end shopping centers within a 100-mile radius of the warehouse club.
B. if the warehouse club has a good reputation.
C. if it is trying to capture additional market share.
D. it had overestimated demand or had a great deal of returned merchandise from other
E. the warehouse club wants to upgrade its image.
47. ___________________ are combating competitive pressures by offering fresh food and
healthy fast food, tailoring assortments to local marketing, opening locations closer to where
consumers work and shop, and adding new services.
A. Warehouse clubs
B. Supercenters
C. Convenience stores
D. Department stores
E. Extreme value retailers
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
48. Brian purchases a snack to eat on the way to work. He buys lunch while on the road
visiting customers. Brian probably does the majority of this food shopping at a:
A. convenience store.
B. warehouse club.
C. conventional supermarket.
D. drugstore.
E. category specialist.
49. If you walk into a __________________, you will likely find a broad variety of
merchandise, deep assortment, and customer service, with everything divided into what
appears to be a collection of specialty shops.
A. department store
B. off-price retailer
C. discount store
D. specialty store
E. category specialist
50. Kohl's, JCPenney, and Bloomingdales are examples of:
A. department stores.
B. off-price retailers.
C. discount stores.
D. extreme value stores.
E. category specialist stores.

51. ___________________ are combating competitive pressures by increasing the amount of
exclusive and private label merchandise, strengthening customer loyalty programs and
expanding their online presence.
A. Convenience stores
B. Department stores
C. Full-line discount stores
D. none of the above
E. All of the above
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
52. Retailers that offer a broad variety of merchandise, limited services and low prices are
known as ______________________.
A. full-line discount stores
B. convenience stores
C. home improvement stores
D. category specialists
E. department stores
53. If you're a manufacturer, and you want to showcase your product in store that has a
narrow but deep selection of merchandise and where sales associates can assist customers
with their selections, you'd likely choose:
A. a category specialist.
B. a specialty store.
C. a department store.
D. an extreme value retailer.
E. a cross-over warehouse club.
54. If you are a marketer for a manufacturer, and the marketing mix for your product focuses
on very specific market segments, you'd like to sell your product through:
A. department stores.
B. category specialist stores.
C. extreme value retailers.
D. specialty stores.
E. All of the above
55. The retail category that has experienced sustained growth due to the aging population is:
A. category specialists.
B. convenience stores.
C. drugstores.
D. department stores
E. full-line discount stores.
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
56. Category killers are also known as:
A. full-line discount stores
B. category specialists
C. specialty stores
D. warehouse clubs
E. extreme value retailers
57. As a type of retailer, category specialists are fierce competitors using:
A. a wide variety of merchandise.
B. highly trained personnel throughout the stores.
C. a complete assortment in a specific category at low prices.
D. highly attractive loyalty programs.
E. All of the above.
58. A retailer with an extensive assortment in a particular category that potential competitors
do not bother to carry is called a(n):
A. endemic specialty retailer.
B. house breaker.
C. market mammoth.
D. revolutionary.
E. category killer
59. ___________________ offer general merchandise at lower prices and are often found in
lower-income urban and rural areas.
A. Department stores
B. Off-price retailers
C. Discount stores
D. Extreme value stores
E. Category specialist stores
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
60. _______________ reduce costs and maintain low prices by buying opportunistically from
manufacturers with excess inventory, offering limited assortments and operating in low-rent
A. Category killers
B. Specialty stores
C. Factory outlets
D. Extreme value retailers
E. Convenience stores
61. ________________ are likely to target low-income consumers who demand national
brands, but cannot afford to buy large-sized packages.
A. Category killers
B. Department stores
C. Extreme value retailers
D. Specialty stores
E. Warehouse club stores
62. Off-price retailers can purchase merchandise at one-fifth to one-fourth of the original
wholesale prices because they do not ask the suppliers for ___________________.
A. advertising allowances
B. return privileges
C. markdown adjustments
D. delayed payments
E. All of the above
63. ______________ offer an inconsistent assortment of brand-name merchandise at low
A. Department stores
B. Specialty stores
C. Category killers
D. Off-price retailers
E. None of the above
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
64. Because of the way _______________ buy merchandise, customers can never be
confident that the same merchandise will be in stock each time they visit the store.
A. department stores
B. off-price retailers
C. discount stores
D. downstream value stores
E. category specialist stores
65. Consumers visiting __________________ often comment that they feel like they are on a
treasure hunt, searching for a bargain.
A. department stores
B. off-price retailers
C. discount stores
D. lower value stores
E. category specialist stores
66. If you were a marketer for a manufacturer and you wanted to improve revenues from
irregulars, production overruns and returns, you would be attracted to using _____________.
A. department stores
B. specialty stores
C. category specialists
D. factory outlets
E. supercenters
67. Retailers with strong brand names of their own might operate outlet stores to:
A. sell excess inventory that might have to be sold at markdown prices in regular stores.
B. compete with category specialist stores.
C. keep manufacturers from selling similar items in their own factory stores.
D. train employees who will later be transferred to the main stores.
E. All of the above
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
68. One of the most fundamental activities of retailers is to provide
_______________________, satisfying the needs of their target market.
A. wholesaling opportunities
B. persuasive advertising
C. the right mix of merchandise and services
D. corrective price controls
E. category killing profitability
69. Retailers address the conflict between consumers wanting or needing only one item and
manufacturers wanting to produce and ship in quantity by providing:
A. reciprocity.
B. simplicity.
C. discounting.
D. storage.
E. extreme value labeling.
70. It is often difficult for retailers to distinguish themselves from their competitors through
the merchandise they carry because:
A. they do not carry enough merchandise.
B. consumers no longer recognize brand equity.
C. big-box food retailers are shifting into specialty store product lines.
D. there is not enough merchandise to go around.
E. competitors can purchase and sell many of the same popular brands.
71. One product strategy used by retailers to differentiate themselves from competitors is:
A. the use of private label brands.
B. discount pricing.
C. removing brand labels from their merchandise offerings.
D. JIT product delivery.
E. promotional product loyalty programs.
Chapter 16 - Retailing and Multi-Channel Marketing
72. For retailers, promotion refers to:
A. supply chain communication.
B. the relationship between price and product.
C. the image a store attempts to maintain through their pricing strategy.
D. both their in-store environment and their mass media communications.
E. the seasonal discounts offered to move end-of-season items.
73. Retailers use ____________________ to get customers into their stores.
A. in-store promotions
B. specialty product displays
C. supply chain relationships
D. off-price wholesaling
E. mass media advertising
74. Kim wants to maximize sales to the customers who walk into her store. Of the following,
Kim will likely focus on:
A. in-store promotions.
B. specialty product lines.
C. supply chain relationships.
D. off-price wholesaling.
E. mass media advertising.
75. _______________________ are subtle forms of promotion that facilitate shopping in
retailers' stores.
A. Billboards and electronic signs
B. Store credit cards and gift cards
C. Personal selling and volume discounts
D. Quick response and just-in-time delivery systems
E. Extreme value offers and specialty share of the wallet programs

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A Variety of Marketing-Related Multiple Choice Questions

Markets are similar to products with respect to life-cycle concepts. All of the following are considered to be stages that markets pass through in market evolution EXCEPT ________.

a. emergence
b. destruction
c. growth
d. decline

_______ measures a product's handling costs from the time the product reaches the warehouse until a customer buys it in the retail store.

Brand management
Shelf management
Direct Product Performance
Direct Product Profitability

Most products are established at one of four performance levels: low, average, high or superior. For example, mountain bikes come in a variety of sizes and physical attributes. When a consumer purchases a mountain bike costing $1,000 she/he expects the bike to perform to specifications and to have a high ________ meeting the promised specifications.

An alternative formulation to customer equity is provided by Blattberg, Getz, and Thomas. They view customer equity as being driven by three components: acquisition, ________, and add-on selling.

a. satisfaction
b. retention
c. quality
d. pricing

By adding more channels, companies can gain three important benefits. First, they can increase their market coverage, second, they can lower channel costs by moving to a lower cost channel, and third they can provide ________.

a. effective dollar costs/sale
b. increased volume of sales
c. more customized selling
d. increased exposure

Your product enjoys high brand loyalty and high involvement in the category. Your product has perceived differences that consumers recognize between brands. Your product is one of the few that its consumers choose before selecting the retail store/Web site to purchase the product. Which promotion strategy would hold the greatest opportunity for incremental sales for your product based upon the consumer criteria above?

a. Hybrid
b. Branding
c. Pull
d. Push

Companies that practice ________ are implementing a total market orientation and are likely to be the most successful.

reactive market orientation
proactive marketing orientation
both reactive and proactive marketing orientation
"invent and market"

A customer's decision to be loyal or to defect is the sum of many small encounters with the company. Consulting firm Forum Corporation says that in order for all these small encounters to add up to customer loyalty, companies need to create ________.

a reward program
a branded customer experience
strong word-of-mouth promotions
a top-notch advertising campaign

____________is the set of measures that helps quantify, compare, and interpret marketing performance.

sales analysis
customer performance scorecard
performance dashboard
marketing metrics

________ is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

Customer retention

A ________ strategy involves the manufacturer using its sales force and trade promotion money to induce intermediaries to carry, promote, and sell the product to end users.

none of the above

The formula for the break-even calculation is ________.

fixed costs/(variable costs - price)
(price - variable costs)/fixed costs
fixed costs/(price - variable costs)
fixed costs/unit sales

When McDonald's used mystery shoppers to assess stores' internal speed standards, McDonald's was using which of the following steps to improve its marketing intelligence system?

A company can train and motivate the sales force to spot and report new developments.
A company can network externally.
A company can motivate distributors, retailers, and other intermediaries to pass along important intelligence.
A company can take advantage of government data sources.

Marketers must be concerned with transportation decisions. Transportation choices will affect product ________, on-time delivery performance, and the conditions of the goods when they arrive, all of which affects customer satisfaction.

none of the above

One of the don'ts of questionnaire construction is to ensure that fixed responses do not overlap. Which of the following is the best illustration of a problem that this "don't" might cause?

A consumer must describe a cartoon about buying a car.
An income question asks for an income designation in one of the following income categories: $0-$20,000, $20,000-$40,000, or $40,000 and above.
A consumer is asked whether or not he or she could spy on another consumer's shopping experience.
A consumer is asked to describe a recent event will driving.

________ can be defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand.

Consumer-based brand equity
Function-based brand equity
Service-driven brand equity
Mission-driven brand equity

Customers must see any competitive advantage as a ________ advantage for it to be effective.


Consumer reference prices includes all of the following EXCEPT:

"fair price"
product price
last price paid
typical price

Sony's former president, Akio Morita, wanted everyone to have access to "personal portable sound," so his company created the Walkman and portable CD player. Which of the following planning aids most likely assisted Mr. Morita with his vision?

The mission statement.
A SWOT analysis.
A database.
Knowledge of customers.

If a marketing manager employs such marketing techniques as online buzz, student ambassadors, cool events, and street teams to reach target markets, the manager is most likely appealing to the ________ market.

Generation Y
Generation Z
Generation X

The ________ is the rate at which the buyer forgets the brand.

purchase frequency
designated rate
purge rate
forgetting rate

One of the benefits of interactive marketing is that it is highly accountable and its ________ can be easily traced.


________ requires that everyone in the organization buy into the concepts and goals of marketing and engage in choosing, providing, and communicating customer value.

Integrated marketing communications
Sales department
Internal marketing
External relations

All of the following are considered to be advantages of online research EXCEPT ________.

online research is inexpensive
online research is prone to technological problems and inconsistencies
online research is more versatile
online research is faster

Three pillars that point to the brand's future value, rather than just reflecting its past, are differentiation, energy and relevance. Differentiation, energy and relevance combine to determine what is called Energized Brand ________.


Many countries have ________ industries to create greater competition and growth opportunities.

scientifically segmented

According to "The Law of the Few", three types of people help to spread an idea like an epidemic. They include connectors, salesmen, and ___________.

news people

During which step of the segmentation process would the marketer group customers into segments based on similar needs and benefits sought by the customer in solving a particular consumption problem?

Step 1: needs-based segmentation
Step 3: segment attractiveness
Step 2: segment identification
Step 7: marketing-mix strategy

With regards to product-line pricing, companies normally develop product lines rather than single products and introduce price steps. The seller's task is to establish ________ quality differences between these price steps.


A conventional marketing channel comprises an ________, wholesaler(s), and retailer(s) each acting in his own self-interest.

independent producer
merchant wholesalers
manufacturing representatives

Marketing is not a department so much as a ________.

company orientation
branch of economics

Once the target market is defined, the marketer needs to obtain specific names. The company's best prospects are customers who have bought in the past. Additional names can be obtained by purchasing a list of names. The better lists include overlays of ________ and ________ information

a. demographic/attitudes
b. demographic/psychographic
c. financial/buying groups
d. demographic/financial

The majority of sales representatives require encouragement and special incentives. To increase motivation, marketers reinforce intrinsic and ________ rewards of all types.


According to the illustrations describing the product life cycle, during which stage of the cycle is there a strong likelihood that negative profits will be the norm?


________ communicates to the market the company's intended value positioning of its product or brand.

Physical evidence

In which of the following dimensions of holistic marketing might we find the focus on the marketing mix tools?

Integrated marketing
Internal marketing
Relationship marketing
Socially Responsive marketing

If a marketing researcher selects the most accessible population members, he or she would have selected the ________ sampling method.

simple random
stratified random

________ is a comprehensive systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a company's or business unit's marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities with a view to determining problem areas and opportunities and recommending a plan of action to improve the company's marketing performance.

Marketing audit
Marketing plan
Marketing management
Marketing metrics

________ can be defined as the ability to alter channel members' behavior so that they take actions they would not have taken otherwise.

Channel power
Channel relationships
Channel concerns

From a branding perspective, "green marketing" programs have not been entirely successful. ________ has been cited as one of the obstacles that must be overcome for "green marketing" programs to be more successful.

Inferior quality
High cost
Poor promotions
Resistance by the youth segment in the marketplace

The three major considerations in price setting includes, costs set as the "floor," ________, and customers' assessment of unique features establishing the price ceiling.

competitors' prices and the price of substitutes provide an orientation point
competitors' prices establishes a "target price" goal
the price of substitutes establishes a "target price"
none of the above

When Coca-Cola sold only one kind of Coke in a 6.5-ounce bottle, it was practicing what is called ________.

National populations vary in their age mix. At one extreme is _________ a country with a very young population and rapid population growth.


A brand manager is concerned that his organization's brand image and physical sales are slipping in the marketplace. The manager has decided to query consumers about the health of the brand and try to discover ways to leverage the brand's equity. Which of the following terms will most likely provide the structure and process for the manager's investigation?

A brand demographic matrix analysis.
A brand positioning study.
A brand audit.
An organizational audit.

A high market penetration index suggests that ________.

the price of the product or service is too high with respect to competition
it would be great time to expand distribution outlets
there will be increased costs of attracting the few remaining prospects
mistakes have been made in selecting the correct promotional alternatives

Which of the following terms matches to the phrase "it is a single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned separately from the rest of the company"?

Niche market unit.
Strategic business unit.
Diverse business unit.
Growth business unit.

One of the reasons new products fail is ________.

competitors who fight back hard
poor packaging
lack of marketing expertise
government regulations

If a buyer is loyal to two or three different brands of soap, this buyer's loyalty status can be described as being among the ________.

shifting loyals
split loyals
hard-core loyals

Which of the following is by far the most popular American leisure activity in that it is preferred by 35 percent of adults who participate in such activities?


Traditional brick-and-mortar retailers are responding to the growth of e-commerce by providing and emphasizing a ________ as a strong differentiator to stay at home shopping.

celebrities on premises
shopping experience
expert advice in selecting
wider selection of merchandise

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