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Analysis of Marketing

1. How is the effectiveness of public relations best measured? Explain your answer. What are three types of evaluation techniques used in PR? Provide examples of each. At what stage of the PR campaign should evaluation occur? Explain your answer.

2. What are some tools or techniques used to inform, influence, and motivate external public? What are the ramifications of ineffective communications to the external public? How do ethical considerations affect an organization's communications process during a crisis?

3. What is the significance of the communication process in PR? What types of interference (noise) might a PR professional experience in the communication process? Why is feedback critical to the communication process? What criteria are used to identify the most effective and efficient PR channel or medium?

4. How do you determine the newsworthiness of an issue? Why is it important to use inverted pyramid style and the five Ws in a press release? What are some advantages and disadvantages of the various types of media?

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1. How is the effectiveness of public relations best measured? Explain your answer. What are three types of evaluation techniques used in PR? Provide examples of each. At what stage of the PR campaign should evaluation occur? Explain your answer.

According to Paine, organizations can measure the success of their public relations program by monitoring basic quality measurements. The goal of public relations is to project a favorable image about the company and its products. An example of a PR effort is an article about the company. It is good to hire independent readers to classify the article - positive, negative, or neutral. This is how to measure the tone of the coverage of an article. It is important that the message gets through to the intended readers. She suggests that press clips should not be evaluated by the people who identified the marketing themes of the company. There are different types of audiences, e.g., end-users, investors, dealers, etc. so it is good to measure how the PR program is affecting each audience by tracking their coverage separately.

John Barr recommends the use of strategic PR planning to connect the PR program to the mission of the organization. Another way is to measure the program according to its objective and ensure that each objective is measurable by identifying goals that aim at tangible changes. Always get the habit to measure as part of the planning cycle. If the measurement shows the objectives are not attained, examine how attainable the objectives are, and the other factors that caused the failure. There is a measurement for every purpose and select the right measurement tool fitted for the purpose, e.g., formal polling for probing beneath the surface opinions of people. To meet the goals, ask or secure enough resources and don't promise a PR objective that is hard to attain with the resources on hand. To measure objectivity and credibility, use external referees, e.g., external consultants. The target audience are more likely to talk frankly about a company and its products to independent external evaluators than to the company staff.
McNamara gives these three types of evaluation techniques which can be used to evaluate a PR program: (1) Goals-Based is used to assess the extent of a PR program's being able to reach its original goals and plans. Examples include questionnaires (given after the program), interviews, feedback, etc. (2) Process-Based is good for programs that have been changed over the years, e.g., problems and inefficiencies in services; customer complaints, etc. (3) Outcomes-Based is based on determining if the activities are done to achieve the specific targeted outcomes. Examples are the benefits which clients have received due to participation in the program such as increased self-literacy, enhanced knowledge, etc.

The following are the steps in a PR campaign: planning and management; setting of objectives; knowing the 'publics'; strategy & tactics to implement the program; checking on timescales and resources; and evaluation and review to measure success. Evaluation should occur at the last stage of the PR campaign because it is a way to measure the effectiveness of the campaign so that success can be assessed and reported to management. After the evaluation, PR practitioners analyze the results for possible improvements which serve as an ongoing activity in terms of long-term PR campaigns.

2. What are some tools or techniques used to inform, influence, and motivate external publics? What are the ramifications of ineffective communications to the external publics? How do ethical considerations affect an organization's communications process during a crisis?

Among the tools used in public relations in communicating their messages to the external publics are events such as presentations, exhibitions, seminars, congresses, conferences, and other kinds of group communication. Publications in the form of printed and electronically published ...

Solution Summary

This answer includes ways to measure effectiveness of PR, motivating external public, significance of communication process in PR, newsworthiness of an issue, and more. References are included.

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