1.) Discuss in some detail the set of effectors developed by Yersinia sp. To ensure their survival in the human host.
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The pathophysiology by which certain bacteria cause disease is in many times a direct result of the ability of the bacteria to proliferate within the host cell (Bartra, Cherepanov, Forsberg, & Schesser, 2001). The challenge therefore to this effect is how the bacteria can induce ways and means to grow effectively and be able to counteract defense mechanisms inherent of the infected host cell.
The genus Yersinia has been infamously known to be the causative agent of plague affecting thousands of people each year. The most notorious one is the Y. pestis which caused black death or bubonic plague and pneumonic plague (reviewed by Matsumoto & Young, 2009). The other two species are the Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis which are implicated for gastrointestinal syndromes that can sometimes lead to fatal septicemia (Matsumoto & Young, 2009). However, regardless of the species as well as the disease it causes, one very important strategy that Yersnina employs is its ability to survive within host cells. This is usually associated with the release of this what we called as effectors into the host cells by type III secretion systems (T3S) of which two groups have been closely identified: the Yops and the Ysps.(Matsumoto & Young, 2009).
So we would ask, what's the big deal with these so called Yops and the Ysps? Well, there have been a number of in vitro studies how indeed these system provide enablement and adding virulence to Yesinia species. Firstly, it has been ...
The set of effectors developed by Yersinia sp are described.
Parasites in patients
Please refer to the attached case study.
1. Why might the physician suspect that parasites could be a possibility in these patients?
2. What parasites might the physician have suspected?
3. How should stool culture for routine bacterial pathogens be processed? Be sure to include appropriate media and atmosphere of incubation.
4. What bacterial pathogens should be included in the screening of a routine stool culture, and how would the clinical laboratory scientist processing the culture recognize these potential pathogens?
5. When a stool specimen is bloody, additional testing is often recommended or suggested to the physician (especially with children or the elderly). What pathogen is of concern in that situation, and how is this specimen processed?
6. Other more unusual bacterial pathogens may also cause diarrheal disease, and physicians may request additional testing for these organisms. What organisms might be suspected, and what media and atmosphere of incubation are used to isolate these organisms?
7. Based on the history and laboratory results presented, what is the most probable cause for the diarrheal disease in these patients?