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    Various Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Identify one disorder from each category listed in the attached file (one coagulation disorder, one circulatory disorder, etc). Then explain in 2-3 sentences:
    - The changes that occur in this system caused by disease
    - The changes that occur in other systems by this same disease
    - The method of diagnosis for this disorder
    - The prognosis with treatment.

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    Solution Preview

    I have explained the various diseases related to blood and the cardiovascular system in details with relevant references. Please choose what is required for your purpose.

    Disorders, which affect the body's capability to control blood clotting, are listed under coagulation disorders. The event of blood clotting is very complex and it involves various components of the blood. Coagulation factors that regulate bleeding and proteins responsible for clotting are present in the blood plasma. When bleeding occurs at a site, platelets move into the location and contract the blood vessels to minimize blood loss. Plasma clotting proteins and clotting factors accelerate the process of blood clotting.

    Coagulation disorders arise from different causes and produce different complications. Some common coagulation disorders are:
    - Hemophilia, or hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency): This is a coagulation disorder affecting ~20,000 Americans. Hemophilia is transmitted from parent to child that means it is an inherited disorder. Females are carriers for the mutated gene, which causes hemophilia, but mostly males are affected by this disease.

    Other ther types of coagulation disorders as follows:
    - Christmas disease, also known as hemophilia B or Factor IX deficiency.
    - Disseminated intravascular coagulation disorder.
    - Thrombocytopenia is the most common cause of coagulation disorder.
    - Von Willebrand's disease.
    - Hypoprothrombinemia .

    Being hereditary in nature, doctors advise patients who have a history of this disorder to take precautions beforehand. Hemophilic patients bleed longer than normal people; there is swelling of joints due to internal bleeding and pain. It is common for a Hemophilic patient to bleed for a prolonged period right after a surgery. The female sex chromosomes have two X chromosomes. Defective Hemophilia gene resides on the X chromosome. The gene is recessive which means in presence of a normal X chromosome the gene would not express and show symptoms. But when this defective X chromosome is passed onto a male (XY), then the male becomes Hemophilic. That's why women usually do not show signs of hemophilia but are carriers of the disease. Each male child of the carrier has a 50% chance of having hemophilia, and each female child has a 50% chance of passing the gene on.

    If doctors suspect Hemophilia, they will perform a simple blood test to detect two types of proteins:
    Factor VIII is the protein, which is lacking in hemophilia A.
    Factor IX is the protein, which is lacking in hemophilia B.
    These tests also look for the presence or absence of clotting factor inhibitors.


    • Concentrates of clotting factor VIII (for hemophilia A) or clotting factor IX (for hemophilia B) are slowly injected into the vein of hemophilic patients. This treatment is known as replacement therapy and the idea is to replenish the clotting factors, which are missing from the system.
    • Drugs that stimulate the release of the clotting factors which are absent in the body are prescribed.
    • Hemophilia A in mild episodes may require infusion of a drug called desmopressin or DDAVP.
    • Physical therapy is also recommended to hemophiliacs. This helps swelled joints.
    • All non-contact sports where the chance of getting a cut is less, like walking, bicycle riding and swimming are recommended.

    1. www.medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
    2. Manno, C. S., Pierce, G. F., Arruda, V. R., Glader, B., Ragni, M., Rasko, J. J., ... & Kay, M. A. (2006). Successful transduction of liver in hemophilia by AAV-Factor IX and limitations imposed by the host immune response. Nature medicine, 12(3), 342-347.
    3. White, G. C., Rosendaal, F., Aledort, L. M., Luscher, J. M., Rothschild, C., & Ingerslev, J. (2001). Definitions in hemophilia. THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS-STUTTGART-, 85(3), 560-560.
    4. Bray, G. L., Gomperts, E. D., Courter, S., Gruppo, R., Gordon, E. M., Manco-Johnson, M., ... & Lee, M. (1994). A multicenter study of recombinant factor VIII (recombinate): safety, efficacy, and inhibitor risk in previously untreated patients ...

    Solution Summary

    The material explains various cardiovascular diseases including Hemophilia, Aneurysms, Hypertensive Heart disease & Hematopoietic/Lymphatic disorder. There are references giving ample of information for each type of disorder.