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Blood Cells, Blood Types, Rh Factor

Here are three questions that I need help with.

1)Describe the three major types of cells found in blood and their respective functions.

2)Compare blood types and the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities.

3) Describe how fetal Rh incompatibilities occur and the action needed to reduce pathological consequences.

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I. The three major types of cells found in blood and their respective functions.

The three major types of cells found in blood are erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes. They all originate from the same stem cells (hematopoietic) in the bone marrow (Doohan, 2000).

The erythrocytes, commonly known as red blood cells, are the most abundant cells in the blood. Morphologically they don't have a nucleus and other organelles (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). The erythrocytes function is to transport oxygen done by the oxygen binding protein haemoglobin (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). Their function is enhanced by their biconcaved shape that increases their "efficiency of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the cell" (Doohan, 2000, ΒΆ 2). Erythrocytes have a limited life span of about 120 days.

The leukocytes, commonly known as white blood cells, comprise several distinct cell types that can be grouped according to their morphologic characteristics in granulocytes or polymorphonuclear and mononuclear (Slomianka, 2009, June 8).

The granulocytes or polymorphonuclear owe their name to the presence of granules (secretory vesicles and lysosomes) and nucleus of varied forms in the cytoplasm of these cells (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). This group includes neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils (King, 2010, Feb 8; Slomianka, 2009, June 8).

Neutrophils take their name because their granules have no affinity to either acid or basic stains (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). They account for around 50% to 70% of the leukocytes in the blood (King, 2010, Feb 8). The neutrophils have a characteristic nucleus that is usually divided into 3-5 lobes connected by chromatin (Slomianka, 2009, June 8; King, 2010, Feb 8).
The granules in the neutrophils contain lysosomal enzymes which are anti-bacterial in nature (King, 2010, Feb 8). Neutrophils are the first defense wave against infection. Once they arrive to the site, they recognize foreign bodies like bacteria and proceed to phagocyte the bacteria destroying it with the enzymes in the granules (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). The neutrophils die once the granules are exhausted and become a major component of the pus (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). The normal lifespan of the neutrophils is around 100 days (Slomianka, 2009, June 8).

The eosinophils granules stain to eosin thus giving the name to the cell (King, 2010, Feb 8). The eosinophils account for less than 2 to 4 % of the total leukocytes in the blood (King, 2010, Feb 8). The eosinophils' nuclei have two lobes, and the granules have histaminases and arylsufatase which break down histamine and leukotrienes as well as enzymes to break down antibody-antigen complexes (Slomianka, 2009, June 8). The eosinophils also have a crystal composed of major basic protein that functions as a cytotoxin and may be involve in the response that the ...

Solution Summary

The solution includes answering three questions related to blood cells, blood types and fetal Rh incompatibilities. A comprehensive discussion on the three major types of cells in blood (erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leucocytes), the importance of ABO blood groups incompabilities and fetal Rh incompatibilities and prevention is done.