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Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

1.
Which of the following statements about the left side of the heart is false?
o the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation
o deoxygenated blood returns to the left atrium
o the left sided heart failure results in fluid buildup in the lungs causing pulmonary edema
o the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood
o a bicuspid valve or mitral valve is between the left atrium and the left ventricle

2.
The chordae tendineae:
o closes the AV valves
o attaches the heart muscle to the mediastinum
o opens the semilunar valves
o are the major sites of coronary artery blockage
o prevents the AV valve flaps from everting or umbrella-ing into the atria

3.
The valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called:
o bicuspid valve
o mitral valve
o left AV valve
o semilunar valve
o tricuspid valve

4.
The serous membrane covering the inner surface of the heart and heart valves is the:
o endocardium
o serous pericardium
o visceral or serous pericardium
o parietal pericardium
o epicardium

5.
Freshly oxygenated blood is first received by the:
o right ventricle
o vena cava
o pulmonary artery
o left ventricle
o right atrium

6.
The myocardium receives its blood supply directly from:
o pulmonary arteries
o coronary arteries
o the carotid arteries
o aorta
o coronary sinus

7.
The structure in the fetal heart that allows blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs develop prior to birth is the:
o interatrial septum
o foramen magnum
o ventricular septal defect
o foramen ovale
o fossa ovalis

8.
The portion of the intrinsic cardiac conduction systemlocated in the interatrial septum is the:
o none of the above
o Purkinje fibers
o SA node
o AV node
o tricuspid node

9.
The cells of the nodal conducting system of the heart send out impulses in the following order?
o SA node, internodal pathway, AV node, bundle branches, bundle of his, purkinji fibers
o SA node, internodal pathway, AV node, bundle of his, bundle branches, purkinji fibers
o SA node, AV node, bundle branches, bundle of his, purkinji fibers
o AV node, internodal pathway, SA node, bundle of his, bundle branches, purkingi fibers
o AV node, SA node, bundle of his, bundle branches purkinje fibers

10.
Arterial blood pressure increases in response to:
o all of the above
o catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla
o increase in stroke volume
o increase in heart rate
o artheriosclerosis

11.
If the connections between the vagus nerve and the heart are severed, the:
o heart will beat slower
o ventricular filling will increase
o heart will beat faster
o stroke volume will increase
o nodal fibers will depolarize more slowly

12.
The autonomic extrinsic centers for cardiac function are located in the:
o SA node
o myocardial tissue of the heart
o adrenal medulla
o medulla oblongata
o AV node

13.
In the heart, which one of the following applies?
o spontaneous depolarization of cardiac cells can occur in the absence of nerve stimulation due to pacemakers
o cardiac muscle can contract for long periods without oxygen due to pacemakers
o heart contractility is controlled only by extrinsic stimulation from the brain
o the AV node sets the pace or heart rate in a normal heart
o heart is controlled mainly by extrinsic endocrine stimulation and release of hormones

14.
The P-wave of the EKG appears as the:
o ventricles depolarize
o atria depolarize
o ventricles repolarize
o atria fill
o ventricles contract

15.
When the semilunar (aortic and pulmonic) valves are open, which of the following occurs?
o blood enters the aorta
o blood enters the pulmonary artery
o all of the above
o AV valves are closed
o ventricles are in systole

16.
A uniqueness about the coronary artery blood flow is that:
o coronary artery blood flow occurs during ventricular diastole or venticular filling
o coronary artery contains venous unoxygenated blood being pumped to the lungs
o coronary artery contatins arterial unoxygenated blood returning to the right atrium
o coronary artery contains venous oxygenated blood returning to the left atrium
o coronary artery blood flow occurs during ventricular systole or ventricular emptying

17.
During diastole, a chamber of the heart:
o contracts and pushes blood into the adjacent chamber
o experiences a sharp increase in volume pressure
o relaxes and fills with blood
o reaches a pressure of 120mmHG on the right side
o reaches a pressure of 8mmHG on the left side

18.
Which occurs when a depolarization wave travels through the myocardium?
o decreased Na+ influx, increased Ca+ influx, increase K+ influx
o increased Na+ influx, decreased Ca+ influx, increase K+ influx
o increased Na+ influx, increased Ca+ influx, increase K+ efflux
o decreased Na+ influx, increased Ca+ influx, increase K+ efflux
o increased Na+ influx, increased Ca+ influx, increase K+ influx

19.
Blood leaves the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery by passing through the:
o tricuspid valve
o aortic pulmonic valve
o pulmonic valve
o mitral valve
o right AV valve

20.
The simple squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue covering the heart valves and blood vessels is commonly called:
o mesothelium
o endothelium
o perithelium
o epithelium
o myothelium

21.
During the cardiac cycle, the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each time the semilunar valve opens is:
o the cardiac output
o end-systolic volume
o end-diastolic volume
o the stroke volume
o three to five times greater in volume than the right ventricle

22.
The great cardiac vein drains blood from the heart muscle into the:
o pulmonary artery
o left atrium
o right atrium
o left ventricle
o right ventricle

23.
The sequence of depolarization of the heart chambers, as reflected by EKG, is/are?
o left atria, left ventricle, right atria, right ventricle
o both ventricles followed by both atria
o right atrium, right ventricle, left atria, left ventricle
o left ventricle followed by right ventricle
o both atria together, followed by both ventricles together

24.
The fact that the left ventricle wall is thicker than the right ventricle wall reveals that it:
o pumps blood a greater distance and against greater resistance
o pumps blood to a lower pressure systemic system
o pumps blood a short distance to the lungs
o pumps blood through a smaller diameter valve
o pumps a greater volume of blood

25.
An ECG or EKG provides information about:
o cardiac output
o all of the above
o valve impairment
o movement of an electrical excitation wave across the heart
o coronary circulation

Solution Preview

1. Which of the following statements about the left side of the heart is false?
- deoxygenated blood returns to the left atrium <-- left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation returning.

2. The chordae tendineae:
- prevents the AV valve flaps from everting or umbrella-ing into the atria <-- ensures structural integrity of valves

3. The valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called:
- tricuspid valve

4. The serous membrane covering the inner surface of the heart and heart valves is the:
- endocardium

5. Freshly oxygenated blood is first received by the:
- left ventricle <--- out of all available answers, this is best. Technically false: the pul. VEIN receives oxygenated blood first, then L atrium.

6. The myocardium receives its blood supply directly from:
- coronary arteries <--- runs around the myocardium along entire surface, feeding it.

7. The structure in the fetal heart that allows blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs develop prior to birth is the:
- foramen ovale <--- when it closes, ...

Solution Summary

Anatomy and physiology of the heart is examined. How the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulations are determined.

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