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Energy yield-fats, carbohydrate, proteins & urine production

1) Identify nephron structure and describe how those structure produce urine.

2) Describe the different energy yields of fats, carbohydrate, and proteins.

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The nephron structure and production of urine.

The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for the filtration of the blood, and through this filtration the body regulates the amount of water, salts, glucose, urea and other minerals in the body (Greene, n.d.). There are more than one million nephrons in the cortex of each kidney (Traverso, 2004). Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule with its proximal tubule, loop of Heinle, and distal tubule.

The renal corpuscle is a cluster of blood vessels known as the glomerulus, surrounded by the Bowman's capsule (Kimball, 2010, June 23). Afferent arterioles, branches of the renal artery, carry the blood into the glomerulus under pressure (Kimball, 2010, June 23). In the glomerulus there is a semi-permeable membrane that allows the filtration of water and small-soluble molecules out to the Bowman's capsule (Greene, n.d.; Kimball, 2010, June 23; Traverso, 2004). The fluid that collects at the capsule called nephric filtrate is very similar to the interstitial fluid (Kimball, 2010, June 23). All other molecules like proteins, which are too large to filter, continue in the blood (Traverso, 2004).

From the Bowman's capsule, the filtrate passes to the proximal tubule where 100% of the glucose and amino acids, 90% of the uric acid, and around 60% of the inorganic salts are reabsorbed by active transport (Kimball, 2010, June 23). Also in the proximal ...

Solution Summary

The solution involves description of the nephron structure and how the urine is produce by that structure. It also describes the different energy yields of fats, carbohydrate, and proteins.