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To Test or Not to Test, An Critical Issue with Chronic Diseases

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If you knew that an untreatable, devastating, late-onset, inherited disease runs in your family, in other words, a disease that does not appear until after age 40, and you could be tested for it at age 20, would you want to know whether you will develop the disease? Would your answer be likely to change when you reach age 40?

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We are a balance of social, emotional, physical and spiritual health. Genes are an interesting thing and generally offer a bit of a gamble. Angelina Jolie not only had both her breasts removed but shared it publically. According to an unstated author at http://www.ghanacelebrities.com/2013/05/14/bg-actress-angelina-jolie-had-both-of-her-breasts-removed-to-prevent-cancer/ (14 May 2013 ) , "The Oscar- winning actress has said she underwent the ...

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Testing for untreatable disease early and later in life is discussed.

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adult learner and memory capability and skills

Here are descriptions of some memory techniques.

Learning for understanding

Concepts that are foundational to the study of academic subjects, like evolution or democracy,
are complex and cannot be memorized. Students need a lot of experience with information
about these concepts in order to understand them. An instructor may assume that students understand
the concepts contained in material they are teaching because students can correctly answer
multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions related to the material. But, in many cases, these
exercises can be done without understanding the concepts because statements can be found in
the text that match the questions. Students may also seem to understand many concepts because
they come to school with strong (and largely functional) ideas about how the world works.
But sometimes the sequence of logic that results from applying what they know factually to more
theoretical and complex knowledge creates false conclusions.

For example, adults know that animals must eat to live, and that plants need water and soil to
live, so they may conclude that plants "eat" soil. It may be difficult to explain the concept of
photosynthesis - that plants have a radically different way of getting the energy they need to live
from soil, water, and light.
In addition to the methods mentioned previously (building factual knowledge, direct strategy
instruction, active learning, using examples and analogies), you can build students' knowledge of
concepts by doing the following. Using the example of "democracy":
● Define (1) what the concept is, and (2) what it is not (democracy is not the same as capitalism).
● Give examples of democratic countries (United States, France), and examples of nondemocratic
countries (China, Cuba).
● Have students dissect and sort examples and non-examples by key factors, and come up
with their own examples and non-examples.
● Lead students in a discussion about the factors related to democracy that have been
identified, and prompt them to explain what they mean by asking "Why" questions.
● Have students write about the topic of democracy, both to help them use new vocabulary
presented in text and discussions, and to help them (and you) see if they understand it.
By giving examples, using discussion, asking "Why" questions, and having students work with
the new information, instructors can help them take many separate pieces of information, connect
them in a way that leads to understanding, and remember what the concept means.

Making practice interesting
Practice is vital for learning anything well. But dull, rote practice often turns students off. Some
ideas for making practice more interesting are:
Turn it into a team game - students can practice addition or multiplication by playing a card
game, or practice vocabulary and spelling by playing Scrabble.
Create an assignment that uses computers or has a real-world connection - writing a letter to
a company or political representative, or making a family budget and using a computer to
create a document with a table or graph.
Do five minutes of group drill to fast music.
Teach students to give themselves a reward after practicing for a certain amount of time -
they can watch 30 minutes of TV after studying for 30 minutes.
Have parents practice basic skills - like the alphabet, counting, addition and multiplication
tables - with their school-age children.
Some information and facts simply have to be memorized, and students should be made aware
of this. On the other hand, not everything has to be memorized. For example, only one-half of the
multiplication table needs to be memorized - a student who knows 4 x 6 = 24 should also know
that 6 x 4 = 24. Memorization is very important, but it should be used judiciously

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