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A) Based on this tree of mtDNA inheritance, give the haplotypes for individuals 2, 3, and 14.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited ONLY from mother to offspring. There is no paternal inheritance at all for mtDNA. Therefore, when figuring the haplotypes, all we need to do is look at the mother of the unknown. The unknown haplotype of the child will be the exact same as the haplotype of the mother. Likewise, any mother must have the same haplotype as her children. It's that simple.
Therefore, individual #2 (the matriarch mother of the entire clan) must have haplotype B. This makes sense since all of her children must end up being haplotype B as well. This then answers the question for individual #3. He must be haplotype B as well. In other words, all children of the first mating are haplotype B (individuals # 3, 6 and 8). Each of them received the B haplotype from their mother (individual #2) who must also have the B haplotype.
But what about the haplotype of individual #14? This woman married a man with haplotype B, yet both of their children are haplotype G. Where did the haplotype G come from in their children? Obviously, it must have come from the mother, individual #14 who must also have haplotype G.
Now to confirm this pattern of inheritance look at the other matings. Look at the cross between ...