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Nuclear Transplantation Techniques

Several species of mammals have been cloned by nuclear transplantation using an adult cell as the source of the nucleus. Is there any contribution to the genotype of the cloned offspring from the oocyte into which the nucleus is tranplanted? Briefly explain.

Name a technique that can be used to simulataneously detect the transcripts of thousands of genes in a single tissue sample.

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Several species of mammals have been cloned by nuclear transplantation using an adult cell as the source of the nucleus. Is there any contribution to the genotype of the cloned offspring from the oocyte into which the nucleus is tranplanted? Briefly explain.

This question delves in to two of the most fundamental questions of biology:

Are we what we are because of what we inherit or are we are because of what happens to us during our development, this is often referred to as the Nature versus Nurture debate. It can be extended here if we argue that what our genome is is decided at the point of conception and is solely the fusion of the genetic material from the two gametes i.e.ovum and sperm. If we assume that this gentotype is the fundamental content of each cell and that subsequent to this that mitosis would give rise to identical daughter cells it does not explain the issue of why some cells become blood cells others liver cells and others nerve cells. There must be overriding factors that determine which genes are controlled and either switched on or off dependent on their determined fate. In other words there has to be an influence that is external to the very genome.
Secondly identical twin studies would suggest that given an identical genotype and exposing individuals to slightly varied environmental conditions would give rise to different individuals phenotypically.
In the early days of scientific argument there was the argument of Lamarkism versus Darwinism in that Lamarkism would maintain that the existence of the long necked giraffe was an evolutionary product of the aquisiton through an animals life time of stretching and that this facet could be passed on to the next generation hence over countless gfenerations would l;ead to a long necked variety. This was quite at odds with Darwinism which would maitain that there was an evolutionary pressure place on the selective advantage within a range of giraffes that would mean that those with long necks would survive hence " survival of the fittest" Survivors breed and consequently ove r countless generations the long necked giraffe would survive.
Both of these issues are relevant to contemporary biology, is there influence on the genome from the immediate environment in the case of the developing egg is there an influence on the ...

Solution Summary

The expert names the techniques that can be used to simultaneously detect the transcripts of thousands of genes in a single tissue sample. Nuclear transplantation techniques are discussed.

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