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    A Discussion on Cells

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    There are two main types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic.Bacterial cells are prokaryotic. Select two structures of bacterial cells and briefly describe them; what do they look like, what are they composed of? Then, explain how these two structures allow bacterial cells to survive as unicellular organisms.

    There are many examples of eukaryotic cells. Algae, fungi, plants, and animals are all composed of eukaryotic cells. Some algae and fungi are unicellular organisms, but other algae and fungi, and all plants and animals are multicellular organisms that are composed of specialized eukaryotic cells that interact to support the life of the multicellular organism. Choose either a plant or an animal cell. Choose two structures or organelles of the cell (not used in part one above.) Describe these two structures or organelles - what do they look like, what are they composed of? Then explain how these plant or animal cell structures or organelles function. How do these functions support activities of the plant or animal cell and enable survival of the multicellular plant or animal organism?

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    Bacterial cells exhibit a primitive structure as they are prokaryotic in nature. All bacterial cells comprise of two outer coverings namely the cell wall and the cell membrane. But most of the pathogenic,freshwater and marine bacteria possess an additional coat, the third protective covering known as the Slime or the Capsule.

    1.The capsule:It is made up of polysaccharides (Complex carbohydrates) in most cases, where as it is made up of polypeptides in a few cases. It is found in virulent bacteria which are pathogenic such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nonencapsulated mutants of these organisms are a virulent, in other words, they do not cause disease. It is present around the cell wall, and is a thick viscous,gelatinous layer. The bacterial cell with the slime is said to be capsulated. The capsule has a number of functions to perform of which the most important one is to keep the bacterium from drying out and being engulfed by larger microorganisms through the process of phagocytosis by being antiphagocytic in nature. It provides protection against the antibodies present in the host cell. It prevents the attachment of bacteriophages. It promotes stability of bacterial suspensions.

    2. Ribosomes: They are microscopic protein factories found in all cells, including bacteria. They are meant to translate the genetic code from the molecular language of nucleic acid to that of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are the molecules that ...