1) Since calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids are insoluble in water, how would you expect this to affect the usefulness of soap in hard water?
2) If you were to make soap (using 4 grams of lard, 2 mL of 7.8 M sodium hydroxide & boiling it) and add it to the following and inverting, what would you expect to see as far as results?
1) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water & 10 drops 0.1 M CaCl2
2) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water & 10 drops 0.1 M NaCl
3) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water & 10 drops 0.1 M MgCl2
4) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water
3) Why would these results occur the way they did?
Because of your first statement, you should realize we need to see if there is any calcium or magnesium in hard water. Try to google it, but you will find that it is the presence of these cations that give water ...
Almost 150 words to describe and explain the results of adding soap to various water-based solutions, as well as how it would fare in 'hard water'.