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Saponification

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1) Since calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids are insoluble in water, how would you expect this to affect the usefulness of soap in hard water?

2) If you were to make soap (using 4 grams of lard, 2 mL of 7.8 M sodium hydroxide & boiling it) and add it to the following and inverting, what would you expect to see as far as results?

1) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water & 10 drops 0.1 M CaCl2
2) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water & 10 drops 0.1 M NaCl
3) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water & 10 drops 0.1 M MgCl2
4) Medium test tube of 1/4 demineralized water

3) Why would these results occur the way they did?

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https://brainmass.com/biology/biological-chemistry/saponification-water-based-solutions-75929

Solution Preview

Because of your first statement, you should realize we need to see if there is any calcium or magnesium in hard water. Try to google it, but you will find that it is the presence of these cations that give water ...

Solution Summary

Almost 150 words to describe and explain the results of adding soap to various water-based solutions, as well as how it would fare in 'hard water'.

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Organic Chemistry - Sample Questions

1. Write a structural formula for each of the following acids:
a. 4-oxohexanoic acid
b. 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid
c. 2-chloropentanedioic acid
d. p-bromophenylacetic acid

2. Name each of the following acids (see attached).

3. In each of the following pairs of acids, which would be expected to be stronger, and why?
a. CH2ClCH2CO2H or CH3CHClCO2H
b. m-ClC6H4CO2H or p-ClC6H4CO2H

4. Give equations for the synthesis of (see attached).

5. Write a structure for each of the following compounds:
a. trichloromethyl formate
b. 2-chlorophenyl acetate
c. ethyl benzoate
d. sodium butanoate

6. Write an equation for the reaction of phenyl propanoate with
a. hot aqueous sodium hydroxide
b. ammonia (heat)
c. propylmagnesium bromide (two equivalents), then H3O+
d. lithium aluminum hydride (two equivalents), then H3O+

7. Write out all the steps in the mechanism for
a. saponification of ethyl benzoate
b. ammonolysis of ethyl benzoate

8. Write an equation for
a. esterification of propanoic acid with benzyl alcohol
b. oxidation of toluene with potassium permanganate
c. reduction of propylcyclopentane carboxylate with lithium aluminum hydride

9. Write an equation for saponification of glyceryl tripalmitate.

10. Write an equation for hydrogenation of glyceryl trioleate.

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