1. Think about an arthropod such as an ant, and a vertebrate such as a lizard. what functions do the skeletons of there animals have in common? do they have a common structure? Explain.
2. Why do you think that spongry bone has an outer layer od compact bone?
3. Think about the possibible movements of your lower arms and lower leg. How do the movements differ and why?
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1. In both ants and lizards, the skeleton provides shape and support for their bodies and protects internal organs. One common feature of both skeletons is that they form points of attachment for the muscles which, in turn, allows movement of the organism. The difference is that the arthropod has an exoskeleton, while the lizard has an internal skeleton made of bones and cartilage.
The exoskeleton (external skeleton) is a rigid external covering or outer shell that protect the ant's internal organs. The exoskeleton is quite complex and is made up of many layers of materials. The most important component of the exoskeleton is called chitin, which is a complex carbohydrate molecule that is linked together in chains. Muscles that are important for movement attach to the inside of the exoskeleton (please see the picture in attachment 1). The ...
1. Attaches a muscle to a bone. A. Maximus
2. Attaches bones to bones. B. Minimus
3. The attachment of a muscle to C. Antagonist
a stationary bone. D. Pronator
4. The attachment of a muscle to E. Supinator
a bone that moves. F. Insertion
5. The shortening of a muscle. G. Origin
6. A muscle that cause the main H. Synergist
pulling force. I. Rectus
7. Muscles that assist prime movers; J. Oblique
reduce unnecessary movement. K. Biceps
8. Muscles that cause the force of L. Triceps
motion in the opposite direction M. Ligament
of another muscle. N. Contraction
9. A triangular shaped muscle. O. Prime mover
10. A muscle with two points of P. Temporalis
attachment. Q. Adductor
11. A muscle with three points of R. Abductor
attachment. S. Deltoid
12. A muscle that pulls an appendage T. Tendon
away from the midline of the body
13. A muscle that pulls an appendage
toward the midline of the body.
14. Turns the hand in a palm up position.
15. Turns the hand in a palm down position.
16. Refers to a large muscle.
17. Refers to a small muscle.
18. Muscle fibers that are parallel to the
long axis of the body.
19. Muscle fibers that are diagonal to the
long axis of the body.
20. A muscle located on the temporal bone.