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# Paired T test: Eating oatmeal & Studies of visual images

1. Conduct an experiment comparing two treatment conditions which contain data with 10 scores for each treatment condition.
a) how many subjects participated in the experiment if an independent-measure design was used?
b) how many subjects participated in the experiment if a repeated-measures design was used?
c) how many subjects participated in the experiment if a matched-subjects design was used?

2. A researcher for a cereal company wanted to demonstrate the health benefits of eating oatmeal. A sample of 9 volunteers was obtained and each participant ate a fixed diet without any oatmeal for 30 days. At the end of the 30-day period, cholesterol was measured for each individual. Then the participants began a second 30-period in which they repeated exactly the same diet except that they added 2 cups of oatmeal each day. After the second 30-day period, cholesterol levels were measured again. The scores for the 9 participants are as follows: 0, -2, -11, -15, -12, +13, -9, -9, -8(negative scores indicates a decrease in cholesterol level). Are the data sufficient to demonstrate a significant change in cholesterol level after 30 days with an oatmeal diet? Use a two-tailed test with a=.05

3. Two studies on visual images were conducted. One study participants watched a screen, looking for brief presentations of a small blue arrow. The other study participants were asked to form a mental image. The results show that participants made more errors while forming images than while not forming images. Do the data indicate a significant difference between the two conditions? Use a two-tailed test with a=.05

Participants Error with Image Error without Image
A 14 4
B 9 2
C 12 10
D 7 8
E 10 6
D 8 6

#### Solution Summary

The solution provides step by step method for the calculation of t statistic for paired t test. The also provides information on the number of participants in an experiment comparing two treatment conditions under independent-measure design, repeated-measures design and matched-subjects design. Formula for the calculation and Interpretations of the results are also included. Interactive excel sheet is included. The user can edit the inputs and obtain the complete results for a new set of data.

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