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Research - Association, Correlation and Causation

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Define the difference between these three in scientific research, which is the most valuable concept in research, and how difficult do you believe it is to determine each of these terms in quantitative research? Association, Correlation, and causation. Why is it so difficult to determine causation in research studies?

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This 282 word solution explains the difference between correlation, causation and association in terms of statistics. Additionally, the solution explains why correlation never proves causation, why causation is so difficult to prove, and how one can prove it.

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In purely statistical terms, association refers to the relationship between two variables. On the other hand, correlation is a measure of that association (the r value). So, in statistical terms, saying two variables are associated means very little because everything has some sort of association with each other. Instead, if one wanted to say two things are highly linked to each other, one would say the two are highly ...

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