# Testing hypotheses in SPSS

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Use a research question that describes the dataset below in the example

For this Project, you will use the "Statistics Class" dataset called Stat_Grades.sav, which can be found in the Doc Sharing area under the Graded Projects category. This same "Statistics Class" dataset is used for all the class projects. The Stat_Grades.sav dataset contains data collected about students in three sections of a statistics class taught by an instructor. You will also use SPSS for this project.

Note: When asked to include the interpretation of the results and final conclusions, be sure to include all results, an interpretation of the meaning of the results, and final conclusions that a common person can understand. Make sure you use complete sentences, paragraph form (single spacing), proper grammar, and correct spelling. Minimal or incomplete responses can lose points. Include any SPSS results that you use, but do not include SPSS results that are not part of your solution.

Hint: You are asked to determine "appropriate" tests and methods, and to make calculations. This means that you will have to determine which tests or methods are best and why.

Remember to always show all of your work and each of your steps.

For each hypothesis testing question, follow the appropriate steps.

1) Write the hypothesis

2) Construct the Ho and Ha clearly and appropriately. Note the means you are comparing.

3) Run the appropriate SPSS test and include the appropriate results

4) Explain and evaluate the SPSS results

5) Write a complete and paragraph form conclusion that can be understood by a normal non-statistical person.

Use the Live Binder for further assistance. There is a link to the Live Binder under every Unit.

Place all answers, work, and graphs in this document.

Use alpha = .05 for all hypothesis testing questions.

** Please use non-directional two-tailed tests for these questions (not one-tailed tests).

1. Recall that the dataset, Stat_grades.sav, contains data for a sample of 105 statistics students. One of the variables in this dataset is called, review. This variable is either "1" for "NO" (did not attend the review sessions), or "2" for "YES" (did attend the review sessions). In other words, the Instructor for all the students decided to provide additional optional review opportunities for students to learn the class materials. To accomplish this, the Instructor offered all students the option to attend a set of review sessions. The Instructor believes that offering these review sessions will help student performance. Using the appropriate statistical test, methods, and evaluations, determine if attending the Review sessions made a significant difference in students Total Points. Be sure to include each step of the process, any SPSS results used, an interpretation of the results, and the final conclusions.

(a) What is the hypothesis being tested here?

(b) What are Ho and Ha?

(c) What is the name of the test you will run? Run the appropriate SPSS test and include the SPSS output here.

(d) What are the results of the test? What is the p-value and is it larger or smaller than the alpha value - show your work and explain the result.

(e) Write a conclusion for the above in plain English so that any person could understand. What can you say about the review and its effect on total points and student overall performance?

2. Based on many years of past classes and experience, the Instructor for the students in the Stat_Grades.sav dataset has determined that a successful mean value for Final Exam Points is 57 points. Does the Final Exam Points for the students in Stat_Grades.sav differ significantly from that success value of 57 points? Use and include the appropriate statistical test, methods, and evaluations. Be sure to include each step of the process, any SPSS results used, an interpretation of the results, and final conclusions.

(a) What is the hypothesis being tested here?

(b) What are Ho and Ha?

(c) What is the name of the test you will run? Run the appropriate SPSS test and include the SPSS output here.

(d) What are the results of the test? What is the p-value? Compare the p value to alpha and note the result.

(e) Explain the conclusion in plain English so that any person could understand. Did the students in Stat_Grades.sav do significantly differently than the population mean of 57? How did they do and what did you find. Explain.

3. Using the Stat_Grades.sav dataset, compare Quiz 1 and Quiz 5 and determine if there is a statistically significant difference in the average student performance between these two quizzes. Use and include the appropriate statistical test, methods, and evaluations. Be sure to include each step of the process, any SPSS results used, an interpretation of the results, and final conclusions.

(a) What is the hypothesis being tested here?

(b) What are Ho and Ha?

(c) What is the name of the test you will run? Run the appropriate SPSS test and include the SPSS output here.

(d) What are the results of the test? What is the p-value? Compare the p value to alpha and note the result.

(e) Explain the result and conclusion of the test in plain English so that any person could understand.

4. Use the following SPSS output to answer these questions. The hypothesis here is: "Is there a significant difference in Final Exam Points between the two gender groups?"

(a) What is Ho and Ha?

(b) What t-test is being used?

(c) What is the p value? (Assume equal variances)

(d) Using alpha at .05, what is the result of this test?

(e) Write the full conclusion for this test in plain English for normal people.id Numeric 6 0 None None 8 Right Scale Input

gender Numeric 1 0 Gender {1, FEMALE}... None 8 Right Nominal Input

ethnicit Numeric 1 0 Ethnicity {1, AMERICAN INDIAN}... None 8 Right Nominal Input

year Numeric 1 0 Year in School {1, FIRST-YEAR}... None 8 Right Ordinal Input

lowup Numeric 1 0 Lower or Upper Division {1, LOWER DIVISION}... None 8 Right Nominal Input

section Numeric 1 0 Section of Class None None 8 Right Nominal Input

prevgpa Numeric 4 2 Previous GPA None None 8 Right Scale Input

iq Numeric 3 0 Short Form IQ Test Score None None 8 Right Scale Input

review Numeric 1 0 ATTENDED REVIEW SESSIONS? {1, NO}... None 8 Right Ordinal Input

quiz1 Numeric 2 0 Quiz 1 Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

quiz2 Numeric 2 0 Quiz 2 Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

quiz3 Numeric 2 0 Quiz 3 Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

quiz4 Numeric 2 0 Quiz 4 Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

quiz5 Numeric 2 0 Quiz 5 Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

final Numeric 2 0 Final Exam Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

total Numeric 3 0 Total Points None None 8 Right Scale Input

percent Numeric 4 0 Final Course Percent None None 8 Right Scale Input

grade String 24 0 Numeric Grade None None 8 Right Nominal Input

passfail String 3 0 Pass or Fail None None 7 Right Nominal Input

#### Solution Summary

In this solution, we conduct several pairs of hypotheses using all kinds of t-tests in SPSS.