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Define and identify the designs in each article.

Summarize the rationale of the design for each article. If no rationale exists, use your best guess as to why the author or authors implemented the design.

Discuss how the author(s) collected data.

Briefly state how each of the articles displayed the results; you should also make sure to identify the qualitative techniques of analysis.

Lastly, write an initial critique about each article. Make sure to critique the core concepts of research outlined below as found (or in some cases not found) in the articles:

Research questions
Measurement and instrumentation (if applicable)
Validity processes
Sampling procedures
Ethical considerations

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Article 1

• Title: A Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks
• Authors: Ian K. Macgillivray and Todd Jennings
• Particulars: Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 59, No. 2, March/April 2008, pp. 170-188
• Publisher: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education


This particular work by Macgillivray & Jennings (2008) is an exploration of what the authors deem to be the most prominent LGBT topics as presented or to be found in foundations of education textbooks. They propose that since, "foundations of education coursework routinely introduce other diversity topics in education," it is a favourable site to introduce such topics. They propose however that the manner of presentation of such topics impact the way in which they are received - either negatively or positively so that it can potentially reinforce negative stereotypes. Their work trawled through a variety of foundational education material to see how LGBT topics are presented and framed, paying particular attention to the following topics - "discrimination and harassment against LGBT people; LGBT identities and experiences; LGBT parents, guardians, and families; LGBT history; strategies, resources, and curricula to increase safety and support; legal issues and professional responsibilities; personal beliefs and
Opposition; and conceptual terms and frameworks." They concluded that while the materials provided a range of coverage, they are neither uniform nor in-depth.

Design & Rationale

As explained, they authors wanted to find out how LGBT topics are covered in foundational education materials. They believe that if framed negatively, the foundational texts can create biases, even subtly and this is unethical and well as unacceptable practice especially in the field of education especially since they believe that teacher preparation programs ignore LGBT issues. Their rationale behind this, while manifold hold the central idea that since foundational education is the best place for preserves teachers to get introduction to the topic with LGBT families and LGBT issues needing support in more and more American school systems, the relevance of coming to understand LGBT issues without fear and from a neutral zone will only enhance learning, broaden understanding as well as equip preserves teachers with key knowledge and skills that will allow them to better provide support to this particular population. Additionally, they propose that with heterosexuality being seen as the norm, 'other' sexual orientations are seen as abnormal which can then lead to homophobia in classrooms. The authors therefore designed a 'content-review' wherein they chose specific foundation education textbooks and with the use of ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides information, assistance and advise in tackling the task see above) of putting together 2 article reviews/analysis/critique, on 2 research articles (see attached). An outline is suggested for each review as well. Resources are also listed fr further exploration of the topic.