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Helping The Adolescent

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Please help me with the following:

*Learning to counsel teens
*Helping in a time of trauma
*Choosing appropriate counseling styles

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Please see response attached (for best formatting), which is also presented below. I hope this helps and take care.


Let's take a closer look through research, illustrative examples, and links for further research, which you can then draw on for your final copies. I also attached one highly informative article. Again, the three points can act as a tentative outline for your commentary and summary.

Helping The Adolescent

1. Learning to counsel teens

A person learns to counsel teens through first learning about counselling theories and techniques, and then by practicing the skills first on volunteers and then, usually, in their practicum with teens under the supervision of a supervisor appointed.

Let's look at an illustrative example as a way of learning to counsel teens and the types of questions to ask, and the likes.

Illustrative Example 1: Counseling Teens e.g. unwanted sexual activity and rape drugs:
Ask questions about unwanted sexual activity.
· Has anyone ever forced you to have sex?
· Have you ever had sex when you really didn't want to?
· Can you tell me what happened?

Explain the concepts of "consent" and "submit"
· When a person has sex because they are afraid, it is not consent........it is submission.

Discuss concept of "coercion." These are tactics used to manipulate a person into doing something they do not want to do.
· Persuasion (I know you really want to...)
· Put Downs (No one else will ever want you)
· Guilt Trips (But I gave up going out with my friends! I took you out, you owe me.)
· Pressure (If you loved me, you would...)
· Blackmail (If you don't, I will tell everyone you are a virgin.)
· Manipulation (You are the only one who understands me. I can't live without you.)

Provide techniques for being assertive.
For example, have adolescents practice these statements:
"When you ___, it makes me feel___. I want you to___, or I will___.

Encourage teens to look the person in the eye, use a firm voice, stand up or sit up straight, and hold her/his head high.

Know the types of abuse in relationships and what you can do to prevent rape.

Discuss date rape drugs:
· Rohypnol, GHB, alcohol and other drugs are used to gain access to individuals in order to engage in sexual activity. Use of any of these drugs to manipulate a person into sexual activity is wrong.

Reinforce message:
· Individuals have the right NOT to engage in sexual activity, or to END sexual activity at any time, no matter what! (Source: http://chfs.ky.gov/dph/ach/Pregnancy+Prevention+Initatives.htm)

2. Helping in a time of trauma

Helping children and teens in times of trauma include the following:

1. Be direct, simple, honest and appropriate. Explain truthfully what happened.
2. Listen to what the child or teen is feeling or asking you. Then respond according to the child or teen's needs and your own ability.
3. Encourage the child or teen to express feelings openly. Crying is normal and helpful. So are feelings of anger.
4. Accept the emotions and reactions the child or teen expresses. Don't tell the child or teen how she or he should or should not feel.
5. Share your feelings with the child or teen. Allow the child or teen to comfort you.
6. Offer warmth and your physical presence and affections.
7. Be patient. Know that children or teens need to hear and/or tell "the story" and to ask the same questions again and again.
8. Reassure the child or teen that the loss is not contagious; that the death of one person does not mean that another loved one will also die or be injured.
9. Maintain order, stability and security in the child or teen's life.
10. Take your own advice. Take care of yourself. If you're not okay, the child or teen cannot be okay.
11. Many counselors can assist in working through feelings.

Illustrative Example 2: Common Trauma Reactions Immediately Following An Abortion

Abortion can cause trauma throughout a household, family, and workplace...even if some members are unaware that the abortion took place. Not all people will have the same experience or reactions to trauma. Some people do well by talking to family members or friends and remembering to take care of themselves. Others may not be able to focus on what they need or may not know how to get their needs met.

People may Experience:
§ Anger
§ Guilt
§ Fatigue
§ Depression (mood swings, weeping, headaches)
§ Helplessness
§ Hopelessness
§ Fear
§ Disorientation
§ Interruptions in sleeping patterns (trouble falling asleep, inability to sleep, sleeping too much, interrupted sleep, nightmares)
§ Changes in eating habits
§ Impulsiveness in teens (stealing, hitting, biting, fighting with others)
§ Regression in younger children (thumb sucking, bed-wetting, stuttering, baby talk)
§ Re-enactment in teens and school-aged children (acting out, writing about or drawing "scenes" of abortion if they know, etc.)
§ Avoiding Behaviors (withdrawing from normal activities, avoiding others, avoiding people involved in the abortion)

Things that help people:

§ Feeling safe
§ Support System (i.e., family, friends, co-workers)
§ Routine
§ Encouragement
§ Activity
§ Exercise
§ Focus on positive
§ Have teens/children take time to "play"

Ways to meet these needs:

§ Talking to others about feelings and the experience itself. Without judgment or pressure, talk to:
· Family members and friends
· Abortion recovery specialists
· Counselors (professional, lay)
· Spiritual or religious leaders
§ Planning daily routine
§ At least one hot meal a day
§ Reduce caffeine and sugar intake
§ Limit alcohol consumption
§ Drink plenty of fluids
§ Nap for short periods during the day
§ At least 7-8 hours of sleep a night

Adapted from: Family Assistance Foundation http://www.fafonline.org & Association of Traumatic Stress Specialists www.ATSS.info Source: http://www.abortionrecoverycounseling.com/TraumaTips.html

Let's look at another illustrative example of helping in a time of trauma e.g., helping victims of sexual assault. Notice that all traumatic events have some commonalities ...

Solution Summary

Through research and examples, this solution describes how to counsel teens, how to help in a time of trauma and choosing appropriate counseling styles.