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    Evaluative Questions: Quantitative & Qualitative

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    For this discussion, you will describe your research design for answering key evaluation questions for your program evaluation. This is an extended discussion that should be 300-400 words.

    At the beginning of your post, briefly provide the following information for your peers' review:

    Clinical area of concern.
    Clinical intervention to be evaluated.

    provide the following:

    State one evaluation question (pertinent to your planned evaluation) that could be answered with a quantitative study. Then, specify the type of research design that would best answer this question, offering your rationale. Lastly, identify the dependent and independent variables that would be measured to answer this evaluation question.
    State another evaluation question (pertinent to your planned evaluation) that could be answered with a quantitative study. Then, specify the type of research design that would best answer this question, offering your rationale. Lastly, identify the dependent and independent variables that would be measured to answer this evaluation question.

    You will find it helpful to analyze the articles you found for your literature review and identify their types of research design as well as independent and dependent variables in order to prepare and refine your plan.

    Include current APA style citations for at least four scholarly resources (this may be a combination of book sources and at least two peer-reviewed journal articles) that support your quantitative research design.

    The population I am serving is adolescents with Substance Abuse, using Person-Centered Therapy.
    Often accompanying emotional problems among adolescents is the widespread abuse of substance studies show that substance use among adolescents is associated with poor school performance, problems with authority, and high‐risk behaviors, including driving while intoxicated and unprotected sexual activity. Fifteen‐year‐olds who drink have been found to be seven times as likely to have sexual intercourse as their non-drinking contemporaries AAP, 2001 as cited in SAMSHA, 2008).
    Some specific risk factors for adolescent substance abuse include:
    • Antisocial behavior at a young age, especially aggression
    • Poor self‐esteem
    • School failure
    • ADD and AD/HD
    • Learning disabilities
    • Peers who use drugs
    • Alienation from peers or family
    Depression and other mood disordersp [e.g., bipolar disorder] (cited in SAMSHA, 2008).
    -Identify the clinical area of concern. (Substance Abuse)
    Identify the clinical intervention (such as Person Centered Therapy, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, Reality Therapy, Play Therapy) that you have selected to implement to address the clinical area of concern (Substance Abuse).
    The Overview of Findings From the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 17.6 percent of 12‐ to 17‐year‐olds reported drinking in the month preceding the survey, and 11.6 percent of 12‐ to 17‐year‐olds said they had used an illicit drug (Office of Applied Studies [OAS] 2003a). More than 65 percent of young people who were classified as heavy drinkers were also using illicit drugs [OAS 2002b] (as cited in SAMSHA, 2008). The intervention selected to address this problem is the Person-Centered approach. The person-centered approach was popularized by Carl Rogers (1979), who emphasized the centrality of the therapeutic alliance (i.e. the relationship between the client and the counselor). He was one of the first psychologists to emphasize the need to recognize the concept of self in therapeutic interventions.
    From this perspective, Rogers developed the concept in repudiation of psychoanalysis. Rogers (1951) renamed the approach client-centered therapy to emphasize the client over the nondirective method. He held that the human person had an actualizing tendency to develop the capacity to become self-reliant. A good source for viewing Roger's client-centered therapy is offered by Truscott (2010) who discussed Roger's approach factors in client-centered therapy; it places the responsibility upon the client to search for a solution to his or her problem. Thus, from this perspective, he based his counseling approach upon the following core concepts: (a) self-actualizing tendency, (b) Organismic valuing process [born with the ability to make determinations], (limits to self-actualization [growth can be blocked], and (d) and the self and ideal self [we relate to the outside world] (Corey, 2005).
    The client and counselor's role was to be equally in a therapeutic relationship. Basic tenets in Roger's therapy is that it embraces humanistic theories to include: (a) striving toward an inner goal, (b) acceptance as significant in human life, and (c) the ability to change the course of one's life. Research is presented to summarize the person-centered approach as psychotherapy to be regarded as an ethical phenomenon that involves a deep responsibility and obligation in which clients are expected to provide services to one another (Cornelius -White, 2008). A primary goal of the person-centered therapist is that the human person has a natural tendency by which to discover his or her own potential.
    As it relates to adolescents, they experience various psychological problems and behavioral symptoms associated with this transition Therefore, a rational for using the Person-centered approach for treating adolescent substance abuse is its focus on the dignity and worth of the person, the unconditional regard for others; and the significance placed on empathy in therapy. Research indicates that substance abuse and substance abuse dependency are serious problems among youth and college students (Burck, Laux, Ritchie, & Baker (2008). The use of substance abuse includes the use of number of controlled substances that has a high probability of having a substance abuse dependence disorder. A weaknesses exist in the literature regarding the Person-Centered approach as a form of treatment, because of the lack of its scientific focus. Newer models that are presented based on Rogerian concepts can help to address this gap in the literature. For example, studies point out that (e.g.Burck et al., 2008) that empathy as an important predictor of the client progress in therapy. In addition, to its ability to facilitate warmth children, a level of empathy in the therapeutic process aimed at treating drug abuse aids in the counselor-client relationship.
    Burck, A. M., Laux, J. M., Ritchie, M. & Baker, D. (2008). An examination of the substance abuse subtle screening inventory-3 correctional scale in a college student population. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 29(1), 49-61.
    Corey, G. (2005). Theory and practice of counseling & Psychotherapy (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
    Cornelius-White, J. H. D. (2008). Reexamination of Rogers (1959) collection of theories on the person-centered approach Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 7(3), 201-208.
    Substance abuse and family therapy. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://www.samsha.gov.
    Truscott, D. (2010). Person-centered therapy. In: Becoming an effective psychotherapist: Adopting a theory of psychotherapy that's right for you and your client. Truscott, Derek; Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2010. pp. 67-81.

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    Evaluation Question & Design

    According to Trochim (2006), "Evaluation is the systematic acquisition and assessment of information to provide useful feedback about some object...The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies." This particular program is focused on clinical psychology; with a particular derivation of behavioral psychology in that the person-centered therapy utilized in the program is a form of talk-therapy popularized by the likes of Carl Rogers. In this approach, the goal is the use of 'talk' facilitated by the therapist and utilized by the client to work through their attitudes, feelings and behaviors impacting function and thinking. The focus here is rehabilitation and treatment from substance abuse through the use of therapy.

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    Solution Summary

    The solution provides information, assistance and advise in tackling the task (see above) on the topic of designing evaluative questions for a drug abuse therapy program using quantitative and qualitative research design. Resources are listed for further exploration of the topic.