Ideas and references are generated in this solution to discuss gender and ethnic differences surrounding happiness. It offers diverse definitions of happiness, the varied importance of happiness between different groups, and then determines what seems to make different people happy.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 10, 2019, 8:29 am ad1c9bdddf
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In general, most definitions of happiness suggests how "Happiness and well-being are often defined as internal feelings or states of satisfaction" (Uchida & Oishi, 2016, p. 125). Yet research cautions how Western and Eastern cultural variations are typical since "This definition, along with others predominant in the U.S. and other English-speaking nations, focuses on an individual's long-term emotional state: a happy person is a person who has pleasant feelings most of the time, and feels satisfied with his/her life overall" (Uchida & Oishi, 2016, p. 125). Interestingly, experts also cited how negative social effects of emotion suppression were reportedly higher for those with European-American cultural values than for those with Asian cultural values (Uchida & Oishi, 2016, p. 128).
Culture definitely plays an eminent role in defining and measuring happiness as Uchida & Oishi (2016) determined after research from a free-association task, in which many Americans "spontaneously described happiness as a relatively enduring positive state to be pursued personally, whereas many Japanese spontaneouslydefined it as an interpersonal condition that is also fraught with potential negative consequences (Uchida & Kitayama, 2009). Specifically, over 98% of American descriptions of happiness, but only 67% of Japanese descriptions, were rated as positive" (p. 130).
In addition, various ethnic differences surrounding happiness are noted through evidence-based examinations. For example, a Brazilian study showed how degrees of happiness were linked among levels "of social support, activities performed, and health and economic situation among retirees from urban and rural areas" (Amorim, França, & Valentini, 2017, p. 1). Data proved that "the most important predictors of happiness were health ( β = 0.42), social ...
900 words of notes and references briefly correlate how happiness and culture can be aligned as well as happiness and gender.