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Theories of psychosocial and cognitive development:

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1.Describe the crises of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
2.Discuss the process that according to Piaget, guides cognitive development.

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1.Erik Erikson's theory of psycho-social development: This theory emphasizes the importance of social facotrs in the development of personality of an individual (General Psychology, Concepts and Connections, 2008, Rathus, S., p 405). Erikson proposed the concept of "developmental milestones" that are functions meant to vary in stability and persistence throughout life, and at the same time provide regulatory constants at different age levels. He opines that an individual gradually undergoes a shift or change from one psycho-social stage to the other as a result of the process of growth from infancy to maturity. The changes take place through eight stages in the lifespan of an individual. They are: Oral stage-infancy-Trust Vs Mistrust; Anal- 2 years- Autonomy Vs Shame;Genital-3 to 5 years- Initiative Vs Guilt; Latency-6 to12years-Industry Vs Inferiority; Adolescence-13 to 18 years-Identity Vs Confusion; Young Adult-19 to 21 years-Intimacy Vs Isolation; Adulthood-22 to 50 years-Creativity Vs Stagnation; Maturity- after 50years-Integrity Vs Despair. There occurs crisis situations due to the gradual changes at various critical periods in the life of an individual. These crises results in milestone solutions which decide or govern the future behavior of human beings. The conflicts/crises that occurs at different stages will be resolved according to the strength and weaknesses of the basic alternatives present in the environment. Erikson emphasizes the importance of interaction between the biological and social factors in the development of personality of an individual. Thus, the crisis or conflicts that arises in the process of development at each stage in an individual are resolved by accepting and adapting oneself to the changes. Thus, resulting in the development of a healthy personality. Erikson believed that we are "the conscious architects of our own personalities" (General Psychology, Concepts and Connections, 2008, Rathus, S., p 405). According to Erikson, personality of an individual develops by the relative influence of three factors such as body, ego or self and social or cultural influence. This theory integrates social, anthropological and biological factors into the personality of an individual. He believed that ego was responsible in developing and establishing a sense of identity. Humans suffer from identity crises during various stages of development, which can be resolved by interacting with alternatives present in the environment.

2. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development: Normal cognitive development during the five stages of development can be effectively outlined using Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. His theory is based ...

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The solution deals in detail regarding Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

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Cognitive, Biological and Psychosocial Theories

ASSIGNMENT: Observe a child between ages 2 to 9. Record my observations and then develop a summary from a biological, cognitive, and psychosocial point of view. I spent two hours sitting near a public playground and made the following observations. Would you make some suggestions on how to approach this assignment once you have read my observations and keep in mind that I need to think about how my observations can be interpreted from a biological, psychosocial, and cognitive point of view. Thank you.

OBSERVATIONS:

Two kids playing together, while another child joins them and plays until his parent picks him up and takes him back to where his parents are sitting

-Child walking along obstacle course. Parent is walking aside him with his arm positioned to catch the child if he loses balance. At the same time a mother and younger child are walking along the same course but the mother is hold the boys arm and directing him along the course.

-There is a fence around the perimeter of the play area. One child in particular is curious about people outside of the play area. Other children appear oblivious to surroundings outside.

-One parent is watching carefully to see how her child is interacting with other kids. Parent eventually call out to the other parent "Is she being obnoxious?"

-For the most part children appear to be interacting alone, with a sibling, or guardian. It doesn't appear that the majority of kids are socializing/interacting with other children outside of their family or group they came with.

-An hour into my observation an older girl joined the children at the park and quickly started interacting with two younger children. Parent of younger children sat near by and observed as older child led the younger kids in building a sand castle.

One of the older girls in the park. is sitting alone in the corner with her back to the other kids. She occasionally turns around to see what the other kids are doing but appears content playing alone.

A majority of the parents appear to be observers while a few parents are constantly on their feet following their child around.

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