1.Erik Erikson's theory of psycho-social development: This theory emphasizes the importance of social facotrs in the development of personality of an individual (General Psychology, Concepts and Connections, 2008, Rathus, S., p 405). Erikson proposed the concept of "developmental milestones" that are functions meant to vary in stability and persistence throughout life, and at the same time provide regulatory constants at different age levels. He opines that an individual gradually undergoes a shift or change from one psycho-social stage to the other as a result of the process of growth from infancy to maturity. The changes take place through eight stages in the lifespan of an individual. They are: Oral stage-infancy-Trust Vs Mistrust; Anal- 2 years- Autonomy Vs Shame;Genital-3 to 5 years- Initiative Vs Guilt; Latency-6 to12years-Industry Vs Inferiority; Adolescence-13 to 18 years-Identity Vs Confusion; Young Adult-19 to 21 years-Intimacy Vs Isolation; Adulthood-22 to 50 years-Creativity Vs Stagnation; Maturity- after 50years-Integrity Vs Despair. There occurs crisis situations due to the gradual changes at various critical periods in the life of an individual. These crises results in milestone solutions which decide or govern the future behavior of human beings. The conflicts/crises that occurs at different stages will be resolved according to the strength and weaknesses of the basic alternatives present in the environment. Erikson emphasizes the importance of interaction between the biological and social factors in the development of personality of an individual. Thus, the crisis or conflicts that arises in the process of development at each stage in an individual are resolved by accepting and adapting oneself to the changes. Thus, resulting in the development of a healthy personality. Erikson believed that we are "the conscious architects of our own personalities" (General Psychology, Concepts and Connections, 2008, Rathus, S., p 405). According to Erikson, personality of an individual develops by the relative influence of three factors such as body, ego or self and social or cultural influence. This theory integrates social, anthropological and biological factors into the personality of an individual. He believed that ego was responsible in developing and establishing a sense of identity. Humans suffer from identity crises during various stages of development, which can be resolved by interacting with alternatives present in the environment.
2. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development: Normal cognitive development during the five stages of development can be effectively outlined using Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. His theory is based ...
The solution deals in detail regarding Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development.