Why is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) significant and how does it impact the development of psychological testing in the 21st century?
My name is Ms. Hartman and I am happy to help you answer your question. Keep in mind that I can not give you a direct answer and answer it for you. However, I will provide you with sources to answer the question and a sample response that you can expand on or gather ideas to write your own response.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology.
What Does the MMPI-2 Test?
The MMPI-2 is designed with 10 clinical scales which assess 10 major categories of abnormal human behavior, and four validity scales, which assess the person's general test-taking attitude and whether they answered the items on the test in a truthful and accurate manner.
The 10 Clinical Subscales
The older MMPI-2 is made up 10 clinical subscales, which are a result of answering certain questions on the test in a specific manner:
1. Hypochondriasis (Hs) - The Hypochondriasis scale tapes a wide variety of vague and nonspecific complaints about bodily functioning. These complaints tend to focus on the abdomen and back, and they persist in the face of negative medical tests. There are two primary factors that this subscale measures â?" poor physical health and gastrointestinal difficulties. The scale contains 32 items.
2. Depression (D) - The Depression scale measures clinical depression, which is characterized by poor morale, lack of hope in the future, and a general dissatisfaction with one's life. The scale contains 57 items.
3. Hysteria (Hy) - The Hysteria scale primarily measures five components â?" poor physical health, shyness, cynicism, headaches and neuroticism. The subscale contains 60 items.
4. Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) - The Psychopathic Deviate scale measures general social maladjustment and the absence of strongly pleasant experiences. The items on this scale tap into complaints about family and authority figures in general, self alienation, social alienation and boredom. The scale contains 50 items.
5. Masculinity/Femininity (Mf) - The Masculinity/Femininity scale measures interests in vocations and hobbies, aesthetic preferences, activity-passivity and personal sensitivity. It measures in a general sense how rigidly a person conforms to very stereotypical masculine or feminine roles. The scale contains 56 items.
6. Paranoia (Pa) - The Paranoia scale primarily measures interpersonal sensitivity, moral self-righteousness and suspiciousness. Some of the items used to score this scale are clearly psychotic in that they acknowledge the existence of paranoid and delusional thoughts. This scale has 40 items.
7. Psychasthenia (Pt) -The Psychasthenia scale is intended to measure a person's inability to resist specific actions or thoughts, regardless of their maladaptive nature. "Psychasthenia" is an old term used to describe what we now call obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or having obsessive-compulsive thoughts and behaviors. This scale also taps into abnormal fears, self-criticisms, difficulties in concentration and guilt feelings. This scale contains 48 items.
8. Schizophrenia (Sc) - The Schizophrenia scale measures bizarre thoughts, peculiar perceptions, social alienation, poor familial relationships, difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack of deep interests, disturbing question of self-worth and self-identity, and sexual difficulties. This scale has 78 items, more than any other scale on the test.
9. Hypomania (Ma) - The Hypomania scale is intended to measure milder degrees of excitement, characterized by an elated but unstable mood, psychomotor excitement (e.g., shaky hands) and flight of ideas (e.g., an unstoppable string of ideas). The scale taps into overactivity â?" both behaviorally and cognitively â?" grandiosity, irritability and egocentricity. This scale contains 46 items.
0. Social Introversion (Si) - The Social Introversion scale measures the social introversion and extroversion of a person. A person who is a social introvert is uncomfortable in social interactions and typically withdraws from such interactions whenever possible. They may have limited social skills, or simply prefer to be alone or with a small group of friends. This scale has 69 items.
While there are dozens of additional content scales that have been independently developed around the MMPI-2, these are the core 10 scales used by the test.
ANSWER- Think about what makes a good test. You want a test that is valid and meaures what you want it to measure. You want a test that has been around for a few years and had been improved overtime if needed. You want a test that is widely used by other professional that agree it is a good test. This test is used to test personality disorders and abnormal behavior. The test can reflect deception. For example is this person trying to present themselves as a good person when they are not? Are they lying on the test? Well, a good psychological test will answer that question and give you the results you are looking for. I am unsure of how long you paper needs to be but I would use the following format.
1. Define the test
2. What is the test used for, how and why ( be sure to include that the test can only be scored by a professional and is not available on line. You may want to talk about how the test is administered.
3. What are the characteristics of a good quality psychological test? Does this test have those components and how do you know?
4. To answer the second part of questions about the 21 century I would talk about the several modifications to the test and how that tests is constantly improving and changing with time. Furthermore, a psychology test is really timeless in its questions and classifications because people will most likely always have personality disorders. Keep in mind that some disorders change classifications or are removed from the DSM all together such as homosexuality. I would also discuss technology and how they test will need to ad0pt to the lifestyles changes in the 21st century.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
Austin, James T., Ohio State U, Dept of Psychology, Columbus, US
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, Vol 27(3), Oct, 1994. Special issue: The MMPI-2. pp. 178-185.
US: American Counseling Assn.
Other Journal Titles:
Measurement & Evaluation in Guidance
US: Sage Publications
construct validity of MMPI-2
Reviews the recent revision of a classic instrument for detecting psychopathology, the MMPI. Positive and negative features are considered within a framework of construct validity. Positive features include strong technical support services, well-written manuals, and the inclusion of content and supplementary categories of scales. A negative feature is some lack of attention to recent developments in conceptualization and classification of psychopathology and in scale development and evaluation. The conclusion is that many suggested refinements are being actively investigated by the developers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
*Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; *Statistical Validity; Test Forms
Personality Scales & Inventories (2223)
Personality Traits & Processes (3120)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI])