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Perception and Cognition

Hi, I would like help studying for an upcoming test this Monday. Please answer my questions that I have for you here. Please be sure your answers are 100 % correct, so that I don't end up studying for something that is wrong. Thank you very much again.

What would happen if we were to use top-down processing only? Is it that we would experience only perceptual illusions; we would perceive only the individual features of objects; we would perceive only what we expect; OR we would see objects two-dimensionally?

In the figure below, the "13's" in the top and bottom rows are identical, but the one on top is perceived as a number while the one on the bottom as a letter. Why might this difference in perception occur?

A 13 C
12 13 14

Is it because of top-down processing effects; because we try to impose organization on top-down processes, because feature detection is a data-driven process, OR because we try to maintain a sense of constancy in perception?

In order to study cognitive maps in primates, a researcher carried a chimp along an irregular route over a large, open area. As the chimp and the researcher moved along, the researcher's assistant hid pieces of fruit in different locations along the route, but in full view of the chauffeured chimp. The chimp was then allowed to travel the area freely to hunt for the fruit. How many trials of passive observation did the chimp have to go through before she was able to recall, with 100% accuracy, every location in which the researcher's assistant hid the fruit? Is it One, Two, Three, OR Four?

What causes binocular disparity? Is it the distance between our eyes; our ability to see somewhat better in the right eye; the fact that the cornea is not a perfect hemisphere; or the fact that the retina is not perfectly flat?

What type of processing do we use in object recognition? Is it parallel processing only, serial processing only, bottom-up processing only, OR both serial and processing and parallel processing?

Which of the following lists exceeds the capacity of an average person's working memory? Is it BOATLOADDOCKROPELAND; MNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEF; MQTLNRAZPCDBLQNVUDSD; OR all 3?

Working memory differs from long-term memory in terms of the what? Is it the length of time information can be stored before it is lost or forgotten; degree to which information has been processed before being stored; capacity of the memory store, or all 3?

Somewhere between
Her blue eyes and jeans
There's a heart that's been broken
Along with her dreams

These line from a Conway Twitty song are far easier to remember than a string of eight Ebbinghaus's 3-letter syllables. Why? Is it because there are 24 letters in the Ebbinghaus string but only 17 words in this part of the song ; the song is written down as 4 lines rather than as a complete sentence, with all words in a row and Ebbinghaus's syllables are not ; the song is meaningful, it rhymes, and it has a meter to it, and Ebbinghaus's syllables are not meaningful, do not rhyme, and do not have meter ; OR many Americans are quite familiar with Conway Twitty's songs, but not as many with Ebbinghaus's syllables?

The superiority of mnemonic systems over rote learning can be shown for which of the following? Is it material to be recalled immediately, material to be recalled after a few hours, material to be recalled the next day, OR all 3?

Which of the following methods would be most likely to show the effects of implicit retrieval? Is it the serial reproduction; repetition priming, elaborative rehearsal; OR trace consolidation?

Traditional tests of recall and recognition, such as those used in college courses, Assess procedural learning; depend upon elaborative rehearsal done at the time of studying; assess explicit learning; OR employ repetition priming?

Which of the following is a plausible partial explanation for childhood When memory fails amnesia? Is it changed retrieval cues; immaturity of some neural structures; poorly developed schemas for encoding information; OR all 3?

Which of the following is a major reason that many researchers doubt there is anything really special about "flashbulb memory"? Is it that a very few people say that they have experienced such memories; although people seem to have them, they are not very confident in their recall; it seems impossible in terms of what we know about encoding in the brain; OR it is usually very hard to validate the details people recall?

What is a big disadvantage to schema-based memory? Is it that the main concepts are often forgotten; schema-based memory requires substantially more processing capacity than does more data-driven memory; schema-based memory is more subject to interference than is more data-driven memory; OR memory for details is often faulty?

The parts of the nervous system concerned with memory that were damaged in the famous neurological patient H. M were in which lobe? Is it the frontal; occipital; parietal; OR temporal?

Rambo was hit across the head with a rifle. What is the most plausible explanation for his amnesia of what led up to the hit? Is it his semantic memory was disrupted; there was a disruption of trace consolidation; neither his right nor his left hippocampus now function properly, so that he is similar to the neurological patient H.M, OR there has been massive proactive interference?

A recent news report tells that a patient with serious and permanent anterograde amnesia has, through special training, been able to remember some things well enough to use them at a job. From what you know about memory, you guess that the kinds of things his patient has acquired entail what memory? Is it verbal, procedural, nonverbal declarative, episodic, OR explicit?

Which of the following cases could be called both a symbolic and an analogical representation? The Roman numeral III; the green light on a traffic signal; the words "Her Royal Highness," meaning Queen Elizabeth II; OR an aerial photograph of Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens?

Participants were shown the letter R rotated by various degrees. Sometimes they were shown normal R's that were rotated; sometimes they were shown mirror image R's. The participants' task was to decide whether the rotated R's were normal or mirror images. What did the results show about the time that was needed to make this decision? Is it that the time required to make the decision was directly proportional to the angle of rotation from the upright ; Time increased with the angle of rotation but not proportionally, the first the degrees to more time than the next ten degrees, and so on ; Time increased with the angle of rotation but not proportionally, the first ten degrees took less time than the next ten degrees, and so on ; OR The time required to make the decision was unaffected by the angle of rotation from the upright position?

What does research on visual imagery indicate? Is it that the same brain areas are involved in visual perception and visual imagery; people who lose the ability to perceive colors often also lose the ability to imagine colors; people who lose the ability to perceive fine detail often also lose the ability to see fine detail in visual imagery; or all 3?

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Hi, I would like help studying for an upcoming test this Monday. Please answer my questions that I have for you here. Please be sure your answers are 100 % correct, so that I don't end up studying for something that is wrong. Thank you very much again.
<br>
<br>What would happen if we were to use top-down processing only? Is it that we would experience only perceptual illusions; we would perceive only the individual features of objects; we would perceive only what we expect; OR we would see objects two-dimensionally?
<br>
<br>Top down processing entails organizing information inputs from top-down, instead of from bottom-up. In this case, the ideas/ images that are received by the individual are processed in the top down information processing mode. So for example, bird is a category and feather is its feature. Top down processing will be from bird to feather. Bottom up will be from feather to bird.
<br>
<br>In the figure below, the "13's" in the top and bottom rows are identical, but the one on top is perceived as a number while the one on the bottom as a letter. Why might this difference in perception occur?
<br>
<br>A 13 C
<br>12 13 14
<br>
<br>Not sure what you mean. But if it means Gestalt theory of part and whole and perceptual organization, the number 13 will look like B as the eye tries to match this odd entry with the alphabets A and C around it.
<br>
<br>Is it because of top-down processing effects; because we try to impose organization on top-down processes, because feature detection is a data-driven process, OR because we try to maintain a sense of constancy in perception?
<br>
<br>It is because, under normal perceptual conditions, we try to maintain a sense of constancy in perception and feature detection in a part of this construct of visual perception. Systems theory and model of top down processing will involve feature detection but at the other end. First the object as a whole is identified.
<br>
<br>In order to study cognitive maps in primates, a researcher carried a chimp along an irregular route over a large, open area. As the chimp and the researcher moved along, the researcher's assistant hid pieces of fruit in different locations along the route, but in full view of the chauffeured chimp. The chimp was then allowed to travel the area freely to hunt for the fruit. How many trials of passive observation did the chimp have to go through before she was able to recall, with 100% accuracy, every location in which the researcher's assistant hid the fruit? Is it One, Two, Three, OR Four?
<br>
<br>I am not aware of this study, but following classical conditioning and eliciting an association response entails that fairly quickly animal models learn to remember what they have been exposed to.
<br>
<br>What causes binocular disparity? Is it the distance between our eyes; our ability to see somewhat better in ...

Solution Summary

Visual acquity, General Psychology

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