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Observational Learning and Video Game Violence

Many people confuse negative reinforcement with positive punishment. Define and differentiate these terms, and discuss ways to keep them straight.

Discuss the difference between continuous and intermittent reinforcement. If you want a response to continue after it has been learned, which schedule should you choose? Provide an example

Discuss Albert Bandura's research on social learning and aggression. What were the primary findings from his research?

Evaluate and discuss the following claim: There is a strong correlation between video game violence and aggression. Provide an example

Use scholarly source to support your answers. Limit the use of direct quotes and include examples and with your explanations. Cite your sources using APA format

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• Define and differentiate these terms, and discuss ways to keep them straight.

B. F. Skinner's (1930) work with animal behavior influenced his theories of radical behaviorism was based on his principles of operant conditioning; Skinner held that consequences which follow a behavior directly influence the frequency with which the behavior is repeated. Thus he coined his views on reinforcement, punishment and rewarding stimuli. He hypothesized that the operant response will either increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again (as cited in Dinsmoor, 1992). Skinner held that all forms of human behavior could be explained by the response to one's environment, and further explained by strengthening (positive) or weakening (negative, or reinforcement and punishment. respectively. For instance, research suggests that if you wish to change destructive behavior the use of adverse stimuli or punishment will help to reduce the destructive behavior. For example, if the consequences of the behavior are not agreeable or pleasant the person may avoid the behavior. On this basis, in this case Skinner's behaviorist principle of positive reinforcement was emphasized.

The way to distinguish between the two reinforcement principles, as Dinsmoor (1992) explains, positive reinforcement involves providing a positive stimulus, which could either be a primary reinforce (i.e., non-learned), or a secondary reinforce (learned) that acquires positive effects though learning. For instance, the presence of a preferred item (e.g., praise, activities) should result in a behavioral increase toward the desired behavior. In this situation, the process of the reinforcement schedule may help an individual to gain confidence. On the other hand, aversive stimuli, punishment (or negative reinforcer) is a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again.

Moreover, based on Skinner's concept of operant conditioning, the process of ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses Bandura's Social Learning theory, and describes schedules of reinforcement associated with observational learning.