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Erikson & Levinson's Developmental Theories

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Assignment is based on scenariothat consist of Erikson developmental theories. Implies a personal case study if someone was working in a group setting with a church, club, work, etc. Two theoretical theories are required. See document in attachment.

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The solution is a 1,807-word essay that uses Erikson's & Levinson's developmental theories on a particular case study which as a sample analysis. A word version of the solution is attached. References are listed for the purpose of expansion.

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OTA 105878/Xenia Jones
The Theories: Erikson & Levinson's Personality & Social Development Theories

Utilising the theories of Erikson & Levinson in an analysis of my own life appears at first to be more work than is necessary with Erikson & Levinson appearing to have similar ideas when it comes to social personal development. Similarities notwithstanding, the focus of each of the theories differ fundamentally. Daniel Levinson provides a structured analysis of a person's life into adulthood. Erikson's theory does the same. However, Erikson's theory gives emphasis on the importance of child-adolescent development for it proposes that it is early development that defines and impacts the personality and identity of an individual later on in life. It does cover adult development as well but the issue for Erikson is that while adult development has an impact, the personality at core is shaped by early development. The opposite is true for Levinson. For him personality evolves all throughout life because we continually experience changes and stimulants that cause our the self we are/were to shift and change, to evolve and adopt new elements while also letting go of certain elements of identity and personality that do not fit into the newly arrived at, newly discovered 'self'.

For Erikson, there are 8 stages of development (some experts contend 3) and they are summarized as follows (from his Childhood & Society 1950 book):

1.Stage of Hope - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - Infant stage.
2.Stage of Will- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Toddler stage.
3.Stage of Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - Kindergarten - Making choices and learning from experience/mistakes.
4.Stage of Competence - Industry vs. Inferiority - Around age 6 to puberty. Competitiveness in social settings.
5.Stage of Fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion - Teenager. Search for identity and belonging - a stage of confusion.
6.Stage of Love (in intimate relationships, work and family) - Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young adult. Social exploration, independence.
7.Stage of Caring - Generativity vs. Stagnation - the Mid-life crisis. Need for meaning, for purpose.
8.Stage of Wisdom - Ego Integrity vs. Despair - old age. Stage of reflection - either one of celebration and contentment or regrets.

For Levinson on the other hand, while he includes in his framework childhood, much of his theory attempts explaining the adult life. His 6 stages of adulthood are as follows (from his Season's of a Man's life 1978 book):

1) Early adult transition (17-22) - entry to young adulthood from adolescence making early ...

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  • MA, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK
  • Certificate, Geva Ulpan (via Universita Tel Aviv)
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