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Differences in Developmental Stages

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Can you assist me with the following:

•Describe the relationship between counseling needs and the developmental stages of a child or adolescent.

•Explain the differences between counseling a child and counseling an adolescent, based on the appropriate developmental stages.

•Can you provide a brief hypothetical case study of a situation in which the techniques, methods, and goals would be different for two clients of different ages with the same disorder. Can you relate your case study to one of the developmental stage theories. With your example and discussion of how the theory might apply to your hypothetical case.

•Discuss how the stages of child counseling presented in the (attached)Van Velsor article and the effects of racism on adolescents presented in the Zayas article might apply to your hypothetical case study.

300-350 words with scholary references

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•Describe the relationship between counseling needs and the developmental stages of a child or adolescent.

The purpose of the Zayas (2001) study is to revive the topic of counseling children to aid counselors in enhancing their skills with child clients. To facilitate counseling, he suggests using micro skills with the child that consists of basic skills. In acquiring basic skills counselors learn to use micro skills as communication skills that help individuals to act more purposefully. According to Zayas, micro skills are the "threads: that the counselor weaves into techniques to help form the process of counseling. Further the micro skills as relevant to child counseling such as suicide ideation reflecting meaning, interpreting, and making use of metaphors. Besides attention to micro skills in counseling children, Velsor (2004) emphasizes the important of process in counseling children. For example, process denotes the interaction that occur during counseling that suggests a change has taken place. According to Velsor, the child-counselor relationship is realized by building trust through listening and communication.

•Explain the differences between counseling a child and counseling an adolescent, based on the appropriate developmental stages.

Velsor (200) presents research to explain the various counseling stages as follows: (1) the initial state, (2) the building stage, (3) formation, (4) contact, (5) egalitarianism, and (6) permissiveness. During the initial stage children present in counseling in an exploratory mode in which they warm up to the counselor. In the building stage, a client-counselor relationship develops. Formation is the stage in which trust is ...

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This solution describes the stages of development

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Child Development and Theories

It is important that you have a strong theoretical base from which to build your knowledge of child development.

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This discussion will be centered on two media presentations ("Stages, Milestones, and Domains" and "Human Development Theorists")

Choose two theories relating to child development to compare and contrast, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Be sure to consider how culture and context interact with these theories. Apply these theories to real-life examples to illustrate your points.

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Introduction to the Theorists and Theory Behind Human Behavior

Carol Gilligan
Internationally acclaimed psychologist and prolific writer, Carol Gilligan was born in New York City. Gilligan's primary focus has been the moral development of girls and women. She has proposed that woman make their moral decisions based on caring for other people and expecting others to care for them. Gilligan is most well-known for the text that evolved from her research, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Gilligan is currently a full-time professor at New York University after teaching at Harvard Graduate School of Education for 35 years. She has been instrumental in research on adolescence, moral development, women's development and conflict resolution. As a feminist, scholar, professor, and author, she has helped to form a new direction for women.

Gilligan's Three Stages of Moral Development

Gilligan has helped to form a new psychology for women by listening to them and rethinking the meaning of self and selfishness.
She asked four questions about women's voices and their moral development:
1. Who is speaking?
2. In what body?
3. Telling what story?
4. What cultural framework of the story is presented?
Gilligan outlines three stages of moral development progressing from selfish, to social or conventional morality, and to post-conventional or principled morality. She believes that women must learn to care for their own interests and the interests of others. Gilligan believes that women hesitate to judge because they see the complexities of relationships.

Lawrence Kohlberg
Lawrence Kohlberg is known for his research on moral development and his stage theory of moral development, justice, and rights. Based on Piagetian theory, Kohlberg conducted research that lead to the first major theory of moral development. Kohlberg viewed the child as a moral philosopher and argued that children's moral reasoning was influenced more by emotional relationships, such as empathy, love, respect, and attachment. This was in contrast to a system of reinforcement or a system of reward and punishment.
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Level I: Pre-conventional Morality (age 4 - 10)
Moral value resides in a person's own needs and wants.
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation—Individual's moral judgment is motivated by a need to avoid punishment.
Example: I do not say bad words because if I do, mommy will get mad at me.
Stage 2: Instrumental-Relativist Orientation—Individual's moral judgment is motivated by a need to satisfy own desires.
Example: For a cookie, I will pick up my toys.

Level II: Conventional Morality (age 10 - 13)
Moral values reside in performing good or right roles, in maintaining the convention order, and in pleasing others.
Stage 3: "Good Boy/Nice Girl" Orientation—Individual's moral judgment is motivated by a need to avoid rejection, disaffection, or disapproval from others.
Example: I do not eat in class because my teacher does not like it.
Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation—Individual's moral judgment is motivated by a need to not be criticized by a true authority figure.
Example: I do not talk during a fire drill because that is one of the rules.
Level III: Post-conventional Morality (adolescence - adulthood)
Moral values reside in principles, separate from those who hold moral values in principles, separate from those who enforce them, and apart from a person's identification with the enforcing group. Most people never reach this last level.
Stage 5: Legalistic Orientation—Individual's moral judgment is motivated by community respect for all, respecting social order, and living under legally determined laws.
Example: I pay taxes because it is the law.
Stage 6: Universal, Ethical Orientation—Individual's moral judgment is motivated by one's own conscience.
Example: I pay taxes not because it is the law, but because it is the right thing to do.

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