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Understanding the Concept of the Working Memory Model

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I am struggling to understand the concept of the working memory model. Can someone help me understand the working memory model by providing an example of an experienced short-term memory loss, and help me explain the example of the short-term memory loss within the context of the working memory model. Also, what is a strategy I might use improve short-term memory function?

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I have posted a link above to a published study (1993) which researched variables (PTSD, stress) which may affect different aspects of cognitive functioning (long-term memory, verbal memory, visual memory--see the table in the article for the full list). Although intelligence levels were similar in PTSD and non-PTSD participants, their memory scores were much lower. The researchers suggest that stress, like brain damage and alcoholism, negatively affects the working memory, and therefore long-term memory. If a person cannot recognize and store something in short-term working memory, then the cognitive system cannot successfully store that information into the long-term memory bank. Research supports the 7 +/- 2 rule (read "seven plus ...

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The following posting provides an explanation of the working memory model.

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Personal Perspectives Paper - Emotional Intelligence, Working Memory and others

Could you please help me this is assignment? I need help in explaining how to apply what I have read, to what I have learned. An example of how to write this would be helpful. I do not expect someone to write the paper for me, but to show me to approach it. Thank you.


Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper, based on your reading for the week, describing what you hope to gain from the course and how you believe you may be able to use the course content in your daily life.

This is what I have read so far.

In 2002, Goleman posits only Four Domains of Emotional Intelligence (with 19 categories, as described in his 2002-book "Primal Leadership") (2 extra categories added by the Hay Group). Notice that the components of EQ are emotional and social versus cognitive as in the traditional notion of IQ:

1. Self-awareness (Emotional Self-Awareness, Accurate Self-Assessment and Self Confidence)
2. Self-management (Emotional Self-Control, Transparency (Trustworthiness), Adaptability, Achievement Orientation, Initiative, Optimism, Conscientiousness)
3. Social awareness (Empathy, Organizational Awareness, Service Orientation)
4. Relationship management (Inspirational Leadership, Influence, Developing Others, Change Catalyst, Conflict Management, Building Bonds, Teamwork and Collaboration, Communication)

What is meant by "amygdalic high-jacking," and what are some of the associated behavioral outcomes? Dan Goleman labeled "The Hijacking of the Amygdala," which means that thalamus reacted differently in highly emotional situations e.g. threats than it does normally. For example, normally, the routes from sensation to action are depicted in the brain. The journey begins with sensation -- in this case vision -- which is routed to the thalamus, which acts as "air traffic controller" to keep the signals moving. As a case in point, let's say that you just visually viewed a written exclamation mark! In a typical situation, the thalamus directs the impulse to the cortex -- in this case the visual cortex -- for processing. That is, "the cortex "thinks" about the impulse and makes sense. "Aha," it says, "This is an exclamation mark! It means I should get excited." That signal is then sent to the amygdala where a flood of peptides and hormones are released to create emotion and action."

According to Goleman, when an "amydalic high-jacking' occurs, the thalamus has a different reaction than that described above. Like any skilled air traffic controller, the thalamus can quickly react to potential threat. In that case, it bypasses the cortex -- the thinking brain -- and the signal goes straight to the amygdala. The amygdala can only react based on previously stored patterns. Sometimes this kind of reaction can save our lives. More frequently it leads us to say something harmful, to escalate the situation, or even to violence. To minimize the damage from hijacking, it is important to practice patterns, which lead to de-escalation. From that hijacked state, that condition where your brain is flooded with electro-chemicals, you still have options. You do not need to stay hijacked -- you still can choose actions. After all, the chemicals do not persist -- they will dissipate in three to six seconds."

However, when 'the amydalic hijacking' occurs, the excessive hormone and chemical often result in a behavioral "fight or flight' reaction to stress or threat. Without thinking, the person reacts to the situation. However, as mentioned above, a person can learn 'not to stay hijacked' by the amydalic by waiting it out or by counting to 10 for example, at which time the hormones and chemicals dissipate. No longer 'hijacked by the amydalic,' the 'thinking brain' again takes control, and the person can think about the right behavior to take.

The parameters of "amygdalic high-jacking" include sudden intense feeling with behaviors that you later regret, physiologic responses to stimuli in the brain and emotional and behavioral outcomes and responses.

What is the impact on working memory capacity and choice processing when considering the emotional and behavioral outcomes and responses?

Emotional Intelligence. Why It can Matter More Than IQ. Coleman, D. (1997).

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