Why do federal, state and local agencies involved in Homeland Security not cooperate better in preparing the US for future terrorist attacks. Using a specific homeland problem that highlights inter-agency interaction/cooperation/confilict, discuss how the U.S. has attempted to solve the inter-agency problem(s). How successful is future inter-agency cooperation in addressing homeland security issues- and why? Discuss any policy and/or legislative changes that have been put in place ot reduce inter-agency friction. What is left to be done?
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OTA 105878/Xenia Jones
Issues in Terrorism: Inter-agency Cooperation
Inter-agency cooperation had also been a source of contention, friction, and, ultimately problematic, even disastrous outcomes. Consider for example the inter-agency cooperation issues that complicated what should have been an efficient response to the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2007. The red tape, confusion in the chain of authority has led to squabbling between state and Federal agencies which resonated in how it played out in the ground from evacuation of populace, levee management, welfare and social issues management and post-Katrina rehousing and reconstruction. The issues played out between FEMA and the local governments of affected areas on national TV, worse, we also saw the damage disastrous inter-agency cooperation brings via its human cost - the lives that could have been saved had agencies cooperated openly, for example. While Katrina was a natural disaster, terrorism-response in relation to inter-agency cooperation is no different in terms of the challenge of navigating the hoops of red tape and authority. The American government administers this country via a slew of agencies under different departments and at times, especially in the case of Law enforcement and defense, what should be America's best becomes entangled in the web of red tape and secrecy as well as agency power contests over funding and authority. Consider for example initial 9-11 response. What should have been a national response was first entangled in local politics - should it have been an NYPD response with NY Fire Department under it's direction or vise-versa? Should FBI have been called right away with the indications of related events all over America pointing to terrorism? Should the CIA, a covert government intelligence agency have taken the lead upon the terror indication?
Governments, like human beings as entities learn from their mistakes. That is the hope anyway. After 9-11, then US Pres. Bush put up the PATRIOT ACT, the aim of which is to expand the authority of U.S. Law enforcement agencies domestically and abroad and has so far moved forward some of the issues earlier on presented by the U.S. Intelligence Community as particular domestic laws prevent effective intelligence gathering within American Soil. White's 2004 book 'Defending the Homeland' outs the issues of inter-agency cooperation issues under 2 labels - intelligence sharing failure & bureaucratic dilemmas. He contends that this is the reason behind the success of the 9-11 Attacks, for ...
The solution is an extensive 1,736-word narrative that discusses the topic of US inter-agency cooperation in relation to the threat of terrorism. It looks into the mistakes of 9-11 (the lack of inter-agency cooperation) and the response of the administration to address this issue using legislation and policy creation to reduce inter-agency issues (i.e.friction, conflict) and what this means in relation to information and resource sharing for future threat management between agencies like the FBI, CIA, NSA and the DHS. References are listed for the purpose of exploring the topic further. A word version of the solution is attached for easy printing and digital use.