1. Explain why the U.S. intelligence community failed in preventing the 9/11 attack. If the intelligence community didn't fail, who/what did?
2. Discuss the intelligence structure of the U.S. and the Department of Homeland Security and recent revisions to the Intelligence Community. Have these revisions significantly improved the intelligence support to U.S. anti-terrorism programs? Why or why not?
Hi and thank you for using Brainmass.This is straightforward - it is pretty much an opinion-based task, but one that has to be derived from expert evidence. It's a case of taking on a position and then researching for materials that would support that. Since this is a Pol-Sci topic, this is all about applying the theory of political science which looks into the allocation and transfer of power so we will have to source that. As such, I suggest this simple outline:
1. 9-11 overview (including position) - 100 words
2. Political theory - 100 words
3. Political & Intelligence Failings - 100 words
4. Factors for Pre-emption - 100 words
5. Overview on US Intelligence Structure - 150 words
6. About the DHS, the CIA, the FBI and interagency cooperation - 150 words
7. Current changes in intelligence management - 150 words
8. Opinion on impact - 100 words
The key is to focus on the details, make the material concise but comprehensive for purpose. The information below should get you started. All the best with your studies!
On Intelligence, Politics and National Security
Intelligence gathering is an essential component to national security. Intelligence is fundamental in making decisions, policies and enacting strategies to protect US interests and sovereignty. In other words, it is intelligence that informs the manner by which a country defends itself and in the manner by which administrative frameworks for governance and risk mitigation is set out to preserve the peace of the nation, to allow for the continuation of a way of life. 9-11 is seen as a black day in recent American history, when one of the most brutal terrorist attacks hit America, taking thousands of lives in a violent way.
On September 11, 2001, 4 coordinated terror attacks was launched by the Islamic radical group known as Al Qaeda on American soil - in New York City and in Washington D.C. by way of hijacking 4 passenger airlines where the object was to use the planes, after a violent takeover, in suicide attacks. American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 were then crashed by the terrorists to the 2 World Trade towers which subsequently crashed 2 hours later. American airlines Flight 77 was crashed into the Pentagon, leading to the partial collapse of its Western Complex. The 4th hijacked plane, United Airlines Flight 93 was targeted for the US Capitol but its passengers came together to try and take the plane back which led to its crash in Shanskville, Pennsylvania. 3,000 people died, including all 19 terrorists with around 6,000 people injured. The death, destruction and damage to the city of New York and in Pentagon were brutal and it took a year to clean the debris of the attack, impacting the economy but more than that, affecting national psyche.
The response of the government was immediate. For the first time ever, the US SCATANA policy was invoked (FDC, 2007) here the airspace was immediately closed to civilian non-emergency flights and international flights causing chaos with 500 flights diverted to other countries. In the afternoon of September 11, then Sec. of State Donald Rumsfeld scrambled his aides to gather intelligence and to react immediately. He Roberts (2002) quoted him as saying that the US - "Need to move swiftly - Near term target needs - go massive - sweep it all up. Things related and not." NATO immediately declared the attacks as an attack on all NATO nations under Article 5 (NATO Charter). Bush, meanwhile announced the immediate US response - which launched 'The War on Terror'. 3 days later, the US Congress enacted the 'Authorization for Use of Military Force against Terrorists which empowers US Presidents to use "...necessary and appropriate force" targeting individuals who determined "planned, authorized, committed or aided" the Sept. 11 attacks. ON October 7, the War in Afghanistan officially started leading to the overthrew of the Taleban and launching the US-led coalition that also unseated Iraq's Saddam Hussein.
To understand the utilisation and gathering of intelligence, it is important to utilise a political theory. A political theory explores and explains the structure of political institutions. John Locke (1689) proposed that a civil society we based on natural rights and contract theory. For him, in the state of nature, all men are ...
The solution provides information, assistance and advise in tacking the task (see above) on the Failure of the US Intelligence Community in relation to the Sept. 11 attacks. All 2 specific questions are addressed in a 2,000 word plus narrative. An Outline is suggested and resources are listed for further exploration of the topic.