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Expressive and directive functions of language.

The following statements concern the expressive and directive functions of language. Choose answer (a) or (b).

A. Criticism is properly the rod of divination: a hazel switch for the discovery of buried treasure, not a birch twig for the castigation of offenders.

1. Expressive: (a) a positive attitude towards criticism (b) a positive attitude towards the castigation of offenders.

2. Directive: (a) Do not seek the treasure. (b) Engage in criticism.

B. A little philosophy inclineth a man's mind to atheism; but depth in philosophy bringeth a man's mind about to religion.

3. Expressive: (a) a positive attitude towards philosophy (b) a positive attitude towards depth in philosophy.

4. Directive: (a) Study philosophy. (b) Study philosophy in depth.

C. Man scans with scrupulous care the character and pedigree of his horses, cattle, and dogs before he matches them; but when he comes to his own marriage he rarely, or never, takes any such care.

5. Expressive: (a) a negative attitude towards the care man takes in choosing his mate (b) a negative attitude towards the care man takes in matching his animals.

6. Directive: (a) Take more care in choosing your mate. (b) Take more care in matching your animals.

D. I have tried sedulously not to laugh at the acts of man, nor to lament them, nor to detest them, but to understand them.

7. Expressive: (a) a positive attitude towards the acts of men (b) a negative attitude towards the acts of men.

8. Directive: (a) Laugh at, lament, or detest the acts of men. (b) Try to understand the acts of men.

E. If there were a nation of gods they would be governed democratically, but so perfect a form of government is not suitable to men.

9. Expressive: (a) a positive attitude towards democracy (b) a negative attitude towards democracy.

10. Directive: (a) Govern yourselves democratically. (b) Do not govern yourselves democratically.

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