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    THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY

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    I seriously need help with homework assignments. Please be detail with answer the questions. Its must be at least six to ten sentence or paragraph for questions so I can understand. Answer the questions using the textbook listed below. PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS....

    Part One

    1.Discuss the historical context of the origins (emergence) of this perspective. When did it arise? Was it a response to any previous perspectives?

    2.Discuss the assumptions made by this school of thought regarding the nature of human beings and their behavior (i.e., the "essential ideas" of classical thought).

    3.Describe why crime occurs, according to this perspective.

    4.Discuss the crime-control implications of this perspective. What should be done to reduce crime?

    Part Two

    1. Why is the modern-day study of biological factors in crime important? How do modern-day biological theories depart from the work of Cesare Lombroso?
    2. According to evolutionary theories, why are men more likely than females to rape, engage in spousal assault, and engage in crime in general?

    1. Why does crime occur, according to differential association theory? Describe the theory's key concepts and propositions.
    2. Discuss in detail three major criticisms of differential association theory.

    Part Three

    1. What does it mean to say that a community is socially disorganized? Why is crime most likely to occur in such areas? Answer these questions from the vantage point of Shaw and McKay's Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. (Must be detail at least 500-600 words)

    2. Describe Burgess's concentric zone model. How did Shaw and McKay use that model in their own research? (Must be detail at least 500-600 words)

    Textbook:
    Criminological Thought: Pioneers Past and Present
    Author: Robert J. Mutchnick, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
    Randy Martin
    W. Timothy Austin
    ISBN-10:0131190466
    ISBN-13: 9780131190467
    Publisher: Prentice Hall Copyright: 2009

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    https://brainmass.com/law/legality-and-the-rule-of-law/theory-philosphy-616934

    Solution Preview

    1.Discuss the historical context of the origins (emergence) of this perspective. When did it arise? Was it a response to any previous perspectives?

    The historical context of the classical school of criminology is predicated upon the history of crime and punishment. For much of human history, crime was dealt with in an extremely harsh and inhumane fashion. People were quartered, burnt at the stake, tortured, and other forms of extreme violence were used to either elicit confessions or punish people for even the most simple offenses such as theft. This historical understanding of crime was not lost on those of the Enlightenment period of the late 1600's, which is why a movement was started to change how human beings approached crime and punishment. The previous perspective was savage and inhumane, and this didn't deter crime but only caused suffering and pain for those either accused or convicted of an offense. Therefore, a different perspective that would treat criminals as human beings who should be punished for violating societal laws but not tortured or unfairly punished emerged. This was the classical school of thought that believed that punishment should be reformed to fit in accordance with the crime committed.

    2.Discuss the assumptions made by this school of thought regarding the nature of human beings and their behavior (i.e., the "essential ideas" of classical thought).

    Human beings are considered deserved of the natural human rights that are afforded to all men, and therefore, should be afforded ethical and humane treatment even if they are suspected of or convicted for committing a crime. Therefore, although humans have the necessary traits to be predisposed to commit criminal acts such as jealousy, anger, and hatred, they should be treated humanely when committing criminal activity. This approach sought to ensure that human rights were at the forefront of "justice", which would deter criminals by using just punishment as a deterrent to crime. Therefore, the classical school of thought entirely changed how human beings approached criminality as this school of thought is still used today. In most countries, people are no longer tortured for confessions, face limb amputations for theft, or murdered by society for killing another person as this is considered inhumane by the classical school of thought.

    3.Describe why crime occurs, according to this perspective.

    According to this perspective, people are rational thinkers, and when a person commits a crime, the person is making a rational choice to engage in criminality. Therefore, if a person steals a car, they have chosen to do so because of rational thought. The person could be envious of the fact that they don't have a vehicle, stealing a car just for fun, or any other reason. The key is that the person rationally decides to ...

    Solution Summary

    Theory and philosophy is examined. The expert discusses the historical context of the origins of the perspectives.

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