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Inductive, deductive, grounded, and axiomatic theories

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What are the key differences between the 4 identified types of research theories (deductive
inductive, grounded, and axiomatic)?
Is any one type of theory more valid than the others? Why or why not?
What are the differences and similarities (if any) between theory and hypothesis?
What are variables, and why are they important components of theoretical schemes?
Please provide references for the sources used in apa format

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Research theories

Deductive Theories - Deductive theories are a narrowing approach to research, it begins with a selection of a particular theory in a given academic or professional discipline that is the bases for theoretical testing by a researcher. Upon the selection of a theory, the researcher then formulates a hypothesis as the framework for the direction of the research study, which aids in the development of research questions, research design, data collection and data analysis. These elements allow the researcher to conduct an empirical study to test whether the theory is applicable to the phenomenon being studied.

Inductive Theories - Inductive theories are the opposite of deductive theories, they are more flexible and open-ended, an exploratory approach to research. The researcher begins with a specific observation of a phenomenon, and through this observation, begins to form patterns and regularities. This process allows the researcher to formulate a tentative hypothesis for exploration, ending with the development of generalized theories or conclusions.

Grounded Theories - Grounded theory is the process of developing a theory through the collection and analysis of data specific to the topic of ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides a brief description of inductive, deductive, grounded, and axiomatic theories. It provides additional research materials that would enable further research into each theory.

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Research Theories and the Components of Theoretical Schemes

Theory defines, assumes, proposes, explains, and predicts what the research outcome is likely to prove (right or wrong). It is an integrated body of propositions, assumptions, and definitions that are related in explaining and predicting relationships between two or more variables. Theory could be any of the following: deductive, inductive, grounded and axiomatic.

On the other hand, hypotheses are statements or assertions derived from theory that can be tested by scientific inquiry and that are capable of being refuted, and their tests may result in support or nonsupport for the theory from which they were derived.

Scenario

You have been hired as a consultant by the local police commissioner to lend your expertise on criminal justice research for the education of the police captains, who will be developing a new citywide crime prevention strategy. As an introductory task in this position, you are to write a letter to the local police captains explaining the theories used to approach your research.

1. What are the key differences between the 4 identified types of research theories above?
2. Is any one type of theory more valid than the others? Why or why not?
3. What are the differences and similarities (if any) between theory and hypothesis?
4. What are variables, and why are they important components of theoretical schemes?

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