Explore BrainMass
Share

Explore BrainMass

    Correctional Theories Discussion

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    Discussion #1: Theories of Punishment

    Thoroughly discuss the seven theories/philosophical justifications of punishment, including criticisms of those theories/evidence of their effectiveness.

    0 0 0
    Discussion #2
    A 'theoretical crisis in corrections" was described as being evident since the "nothing works" slogan was widely accepted and the goal of rehabilitation lost its credibility in the 1970s. Discuss the relevance of rehabilitation to the birth of modern corrections, which is linked to the birth of prisons. Also, discuss what the link of rehabilitation to the medical model suggested about the correctional system from roughly the 1940s-1960s. Finally, explain how the "nothing works" slogan was born and the problems with this conclusion about the effectiveness of rehabilitation.

    0 0 0
    Discussion #3
    Describe the similarities and differences between those who are retributionists and those who favor punishment based on the notion of just deserts. What are the four problems that must be addressed by retributionists? What is the key challenge of corrections that aided in the evolution of proponents of just deserts? What are the central elements of their justice model? What factors simultaneously attributed to the failure of this just deserts-based model?

    0 0 0
    Discussion #4
    In one well-developed paragraph, describe the key limitation of deterrence as a theory of punishment. Then, summarize research findings across the five types of studies that examine the effectiveness of deterrence.

    0 0 0
    Discussion #5

    Different types of research studies are used to examine whether there is an incapacitory effect. These include cross-sectional and longitudinal self-report studies and macro-level research that relies on aggregate data. Some incapacitory effect probably exists, but the research on its effectiveness is problematic. Thoroughly discuss problems associated with this research on the incapacitory effect.

    0 0 0

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 10, 2019, 8:30 am ad1c9bdddf
    https://brainmass.com/law/incarceration/correctional-theories-discussion-629448

    Attachments

    Solution Preview

    Discussion #1: Theories of Punishment

    Thoroughly discuss the seven theories/philosophical justifications of punishment, including criticisms of those theories/evidence of their effectiveness.

    I will discuss the philosophical justifications that are used for justifying punishment by elucidating upon the four primary punitive theories that are used to punish offenders in society as well as their historical relevancy. The most earliest principle of punishment is retribution, in which the justification for punishing offenders is predicated upon giving the offender the same punitive measures that were netted in the crime that was committed. In this sense, if someone commits a murder, they should be executed for taking the life of another person as they are being punished with the same justice that would equal the crime that they committed. This was the earliest form of punishment used in the history of mankind and it primarily emanated from religious doctrine.

    The next form of punishment was "just deserts" retribution wherein the initial retribution model was revised to ensure that any punishment that was given would fit the moral depravity associated with the crime that was committed. Although this particular facet is similar to the original form of retribution, the caveat is that under this form of retribution, the offender's characteristics was included within the equation to account for age, mental defect, etc.

    Incapacitation as a form of punishment is predicated upon the belief that offenders would be barred from engaging in similar forms of criminality if they were removed from society and had any opportunity to engage in this behavior eliminated. Therefore, different forms of restraint have been utilized throughout history to accomplish this goal, which include banishment in the earliest civilizations, transporting undesirable convicts to other areas such as the practices utilized by the British in regard to their transport of their British convicts to Australia, and even exile of politically undesirable citizens wherein "political prisoners" are physically removed from their communities in an attempt to stifle their voices. In essence, incapacitating offenders is predicated upon the punitive belief that restricting the person from possessing the physical opportunity to engage in the criminal behavior will lead to the person being unable to re-offend. Incarceration in 21st century society is another form of incapacitation that is used by society.

    Rehabilitation is another form of punishment that is used, despite the fact that most people don't associate it with punitive measures. The fact that the person is required to undergo treatment, education, and training that is mandated and required by the court, guarantees that this form of punishment is punitive in nature as failing to engage in these actions will result in the offender being actually sent to prison for incapacitation and confinement.
    0
    0
    0
    Resotrative punishment, which is a relatively new concept is another form of punitive sanction that requires the offender to restore the person that ...

    Solution Summary

    A correctional theories discussion is provided. The theories of punishment are discussed.

    $2.19