The saying goes that the West owes a great debt to the ancient Arabic and Hindu cultures.
A) What was the nature and significance of this debt
B) What were some of the conditions that made it possible
A) Our current decimal numerical system, called the Hindu-Arabic numerals, originated in India around 500 AD and came to Europe in the 10th century through Arabic countries of North Africa. So, in Europe it was called the Arabic numerical system for a long time, though. this term is somewhat misleading. The actual Arab inheritance is also huge, ranging from Algebra, where even the word itself is just a ...
Contributions of Ancient Arabs and Hindu to the history of Mathematics is discussed with examples.