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The Body's Response to Stress

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Please provide a description of the body's response to stress. Explain two ways these responses are normally counteracted, and what happens if the responses are prolonged. How do individual differences in recovery from stress can affect biological and psychological resilience?

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(1) Descriptions of the body's response to stress. Explain two ways these responses are normally counteracted and what happens if the responses are prolonged.

Many studies have focused on the effects of stressors such as the loss of a job, or a physical ailment that may contribute to a stressful situation. For example, stress refers to "any force when applied causes some modification of the form" (Reber & Reber, 1988, 716). Thus, as stress applies to the human body, it places a hardship or burden on the individual that requires a certain degree of adjustment and/or coping. This stressful situation or stressor elicit responses that include: (a) anxiety, (b) physical changes, (c) observable reactions, and (d) external/ internal reactions. Thus, stress is a process that involves an individual reaction to a single event or events occurring in his or her world. For example, individuals may be exposed to stress because of physical pain, an evaluation of self and/ others. In addition, stressors can be physical or psychological.

*Physical responses

Physical responses are experienced as anxiety based on adrenalin from the autonomic nervous system [ANS] (Pinel, 2006). According to Pinel, all stressors whether physiological or psychologically produces a pattern of physiological changes. Physical stress response is due to stressors acting upon neural circuit stimulate that release the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). In their study, Dickerson & Kenney (2004) explain cortisol responses caused by acute stressors. They assert that psychological factors can ...

Solution Summary

This solution describes how the body responds to stress, and discusses differences in responses.

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Senses and Endocrine System

The endocrine system plays an important role in our ability to handle stress. Hormone release associated with the stress response can help us to survive and handle crisis situations. However, chronic stress can result in unregulated release of stress hormones that can have negative effects on the brain and our immune systems. prepare a 2-3 page paper in which you:

Describe the difference between acute and chronic stressors
Describe the stress response and the effects of cortisol release on the human body. (With which division of the nervous system is the stress response associated?)
Discuss and label the components of HPA axis and its feedback mechanisms.
Discuss the pathologies associated with dysregulation of cortisol, focusing on the brain and the immune system.

Engage in independent research to learn about diseases of the endocrine system. You may want to begin your search in the book, Human Anatomy and Physiology: Cortisol: Physiology, Regulation, and Health Implications, on your ebrary bookshelf.

Select "Ebrary"from Trident's Online Library website: https://coursenet.trident.edu/onlinelibrary_main.php

You will find the readings on the Anatomy and Physiology I Ebrary bookshelf which can be accessed via this link as well:

Ebrary bookshelf (folder): http://site.ebrary.com/lib/tourou/viewFolder.action?sharedKey=DKSFJONSEEDWBRRYAZOBDBDMKFLLPYHR&userName=trmurray

Bobick, J and Balaban, N. "Sensory System," and "Endocrine System" Handy Anatomy Answer Book. Visible Ink Press. MI, USA. 2008. eISBN: 9781578592326

Brooks, Arthur. "Endocrine System." Systems of Our Body. Global Media. Delhi, India. 2007. eISBN: 9788189940829

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